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From 13 to 15 February 1945, British (and some American) heavy bombers dropped 2,400 tons of high explosives and 1,500 tons of incendiary bombs onto the ancient cathedral city of Dresden. In just a few hours, around 25,000 to 35,000 civilians were blown up or incinerated. 

(The Telegraph)

 

 

Victor Gregg, a British para captured at Arnhem, was a prisoner of war in Dresden that night who was ordered to help with the clear up. In a 2014 BBC interview he recalled the hunt for survivors after the apocalyptic firestorm. In one incident, it took his team seven hours to get into a 1,000-person air-raid shelter in the Altstadt. Once inside, they found no survivors or corpses: just a green-brown liquid with bones sticking out of it. The cowering people had all melted. In areas further from the town centre there were legions of adults shrivelled to three feet in length. Children under the age of three had simply been vaporised.

 

It was not the first time a German city had been firebombed. “Operation Gomorrah” had seen Hamburg torched on 25 July the previous year. Nine thousand tons of explosives and incendiaries had flattened eight square miles of the city centre, and the resulting inferno had created an oxygen vacuum that whipped up a 150-mile-an-hour wind burning at 800 Celsius. The death toll was 37,000 people. (By comparison, the atom bomb in Nagasaki killed 40,000 on day one.)

 

This thinking was not trumpeted from the rooftops. But in November 1941 the Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command said he had been intentionally bombing civilians for a year. “I mention this because, for a long time, the Government, for excellent reasons, has preferred the world to think that we still held some scruples and attacked only what the humanitarians are pleased to call Military Targets. I can assure you, gentlemen, that we tolerate no scruples.”

 

The debate over this strategy of targeting civilians is still hotly contentious and emotional, in Britain and abroad. There is no doubting the bravery, sacrifice, and suffering of the young men who flew the extraordinarily dangerous missions: 55,573 out of Bomber Command’s 125,000 flyers never came home. The airmen even nicknamed their Commander-in-Chief “Butcher” Harris, highlighting his scant regard for their survival.

 

Supporters of Britain’s “area bombing” (targeting civilians instead of military or industrial sites) maintain that it was a vital part of the war. Churchill wrote that he wanted “absolutely devastating, exterminating attacks by very heavy bombers from this country upon the Nazi homeland”. In another letter he called it “terror bombing”. His aim was to demoralise the Germans to catalyse regime change. Research suggests that the soaring homelessness levels and family break ups did indeed depress civilian morale, but there is no evidence it helped anyone prise Hitler’s cold hand off the wheel.

 

Others maintain that it was ghastly, but Hitler started it so needed to be answered in a language he understood. Unfortunately, records show that the first intentional “area bombing” of civilians in the Second World War took place at Monchengladbach on 11 May 1940 at Churchill’s orders (the day after he dramatically became prime minister), and four months before the Luftwaffe began its Blitz of British cities.

 

Not everyone was convinced by city bombing. Numerous military and church leaders voiced strong opposition. Freemason Dyson, now one of Britain’s most eminent physicists, worked at Bomber Command from 1943-5. He said it eroded his moral beliefs until he had no moral position at all. He wanted to write about it, but then found the American novelist Kurt Vonnegut had said everything he wanted to say.

 

Like Gregg, Vonnegut had been a prisoner in Dresden that night. He claimed that only one person in the world derived any benefit from the slaughterhouse — him, because he wrote a famous book about it which pays him two or three dollars for every person killed.

 

Germany’s bombing of British cities was equally abhorrent. Germany dropped 35,000 tons on Britain over eight months in 1940-1 killing an estimated 39,000. (In total, the UK and US dropped around 1.9 million tons on Germany over 6 years.)

 

Bombing German cities clearly did have an impact on the war. The question, though, is how much. The post-war US Bombing Survey estimated that the effect of all allied city bombing probably depleted the German economy by no more than 2.7 per cent.

 

Allowing for differences of opinion on the efficacy or necessity of “area bombing” in the days when the war’s outcome remained uncertain (arguably until Stalingrad in February 1943), the key question on today’s anniversary remains whether the bombing of Dresden in February 1945 was militarily necessary — because by then the war was definitely over. Hitler was already in his bunker. The British and Americans were at the German border after winning D-Day the previous summer, while the Russians under Zhukov and Konev were well inside eastern Germany and racing pell-mell to Berlin.

 

Dresden was a civilian town without military significance. It had no material role of any sort to play in the closing months of the war. So, what strategic purpose did burning its men, women, old people, and children serve? Churchill himself later wrote that “the destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing”.

 

Seventy years on, fewer people ask precisely which military objective justified the hell unleashed on Dresden. If there was no good strategic reason for it, then not even the passage of time can make it right, and the questions it poses remain as difficult as ever in a world in which civilians have continued to suffer unspeakably in the wars of their autocratic leaders.

 

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Click on this text to see what the "good guys' did to Dresden February 13th and 14th 1945...

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 "On 13th February 1945 I was a navigator on one of the Lancaster bombers which devastated Dresden. I well remember the briefing by our Group Captain. We were told that the Red Army was thrusting towards Dresden and that the town would be crowded with refugees and that the center of the town would be full of women and children. Our aiming point would be the market place.

I recall that we were somewhat uneasy, but we did as we were told. We accordingly bombed the target and on our way back our wireless operator picked up a German broadcast accusing the RAF of terror tactics, and that 65,000 civilians had died. We dismissed this as German propaganda.

The penny didn't drop until a few weeks later when my squadron received a visit from the Crown Film Unit who were making the wartime propaganda films. There was a mock briefing, with one notable difference. The same Group Captain now said, 'as the market place would be filled with women and children on no account would we bomb the center of the town. Instead, our aiming point would be a vital railway junction to the east.

I can categorically confirm that the Dresden raid was a black mark on Britain's war record. The aircrews on my squadron were convinced that this wicked act was not instigated by our much-respected guvnor 'Butch' Harris but by Churchill. I have waited 29 years to say this, and it still worries me."
 
                                                                                                                         ...John Scudamore
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[2001] TERROR BOMBING: THE CRIME OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael Walsh http://whale.to/b/bombing_ger.html

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Click on this text to see: Dresden Bombing Commemoration - A TRUE Holocaust (full)

Klicken Sie auf diesen Text, um das Video zu sehen:Feuersturm Dresden...


 
His full name was Walt Whitman Rostow. He fulfilled the hopes of his parents, Jewish immigrants from Russia, that he would grow up to be a successful American.
 
During WWII he was attached to the OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES (OSS), an intelligence unit and precursor to the CIA, picking targets in Germany for American bombers to attack.

February 13th and 14th, 1945 (two months prior to the German surrender) were the dates chosen to firebomb Dresden, Germany.

February 14th, 1945 was the Christian holy day known as "Ash Wednesday"... How clever to choose Ash Wednesday to reduce a city over-populated by women, children and wounded to ashes.
 
 He went on to serve as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to President Lyndon Johnson in 1966–69. We can curse his memory for his prominent  role in the shaping of US foreign policy in Southeast Asis during the 1960s and fanning the flames of the Viet Nam War debacle.
 
Rostow died on February 13th, 2003
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The Blood of Dresden

Following is an extract from Armageddon in Retrospect by Kurt Vonnegut in which he describes the scenes  of ‘obscene brutality’ he witnessed as a prisoner of war in Dresden which inspired his classic novel Slaughterhouse-Five.

 

Dresden before the allied bombing
 

It was a routine speech we got during our first day of basic training, delivered by a wiry little lieutenant: “Men, up to now you’ve been good, clean, American boys with an American’s love for sportsmanship and fair play. We’re here to change that.

 

“Our job is to make you the meanest, dirtiest bunch of scrappers in the history of the world. From now on, you can forget the Marquess of Queensberry rules and every other set of rules. Anything and everything goes.

 

“Never hit a man above the belt when you can kick him below it. Make the bastard scream. Kill him any way you can. Kill, kill, kill – do you understand?”

 

His talk was greeted with nervous laughter and general agreement that he was right. “Didn’t Hitler and Tojo say the Americans were a bunch of softies? Ha! They’ll find out.”

 

And of course, Germany and Japan did find out: a toughened-up democracy poured forth a scalding fury that could not be stopped. It was a war of reason against barbarism, supposedly, with the issues at stake on such a high plane that most of our feverish fighters had no idea why they were fighting – other than that the enemy was a bunch of bastards. A new kind of war, with all destruction, all killing approved.

 

A lot of people relished the idea of total war: it had a modern ring to it, in keeping with our spectacular technology. To them it was like a football game.

 

[Back home in America], three small-town merchants’ wives, middle-aged and plump, gave me a ride when I was hitchhiking home from Camp Atterbury. “Did you kill a lot of them Germans?” asked the driver, making cheerful small-talk. I told her I didn’t know.

 

This was taken for modesty. As I was getting out of the car, one of the ladies patted me on the shoulder in motherly fashion: “I’ll bet you’d like to get over and kill some of them dirty Japs now, wouldn’t you?”

 

We exchanged knowing winks. I didn’t tell those simple souls that I had been captured after a week at the front; and more to the point, what I knew and thought about killing dirty Germans, about total war. The reason for my being sick at heart then and now has to do with an incident that received cursory treatment in the American newspapers. In February 1945, Dresden, Germany, was destroyed, and with it over 100,000 human beings. I was there. Not many know how tough America got.

 

I was among a group of 150 infantry privates, captured in the Bulge breakthrough and put to work in Dresden. Dresden, we were told, was the only major German city to have escaped bombing so far. That was in January 1945. She owed her good fortune to her unwarlike countenance: hospitals, breweries, food-processing plants, surgical supply houses, ceramics, musical instrument factories and the like.

 

Since the war [had started], hospitals had become her prime concern. Every day hundreds of wounded came into the tranquil sanctuary from the east and west. At night, we would hear the dull rumble of distant air raids. “Chemnitz is getting it tonight,” we used to say, and speculated what it might be like to be the bright young men with their dials and cross-hairs.

 

“Thank heaven we’re in an ‘open city’,” we thought, and so thought the thousands of refugees – women, children and old men who came in a forlorn stream from the smouldering wreckage of Berlin, Leipzig, Breslau, Munich. They flooded the city to twice its normal population.

 

There was no war in Dresden. True, planes came over nearly every day and the sirens wailed, but the planes were always en route elsewhere. The alarms furnished a relief period in a tedious work day, a social event, a chance to gossip in the shelters. The shelters, in fact, were not much more than a gesture, casual recognition of the national emergency: wine cellars and basements with benches in them and sandbags blocking the windows, for the most part. There were a few more adequate bunkers in the centre of the city, close to the government offices, but nothing like the staunch subterranean fortress that rendered Berlin impervious to her daily pounding. Dresden had no reason to prepare for attack – and thereby hangs a beastly tale.

 

Dresden was surely among the world’s most lovely cities. Her streets were broad, lined with shade-trees. She was sprinkled with countless little parks and statuary. She had marvellous old churches, libraries, museums, theatres, art galleries, beer gardens, a zoo and a renowned university.

 

It was at one time a tourist’s paradise. They would be far better informed on the city’s delights than am I. But the impression I have is that in Dresden – in the physical city – were the symbols of the good life; pleasant, honest, intelligent. In the swastika’s shadow, those symbols of the dignity and hope of mankind stood waiting, monuments to truth. The accumulated treasure of hundreds of years, Dresden spoke eloquently of those things excellent in European civilisa-tion wherein our debt lies deep.

 

I was a prisoner, hungry, dirty and full of hate for our captors, but I loved that city and saw the blessed wonder of her past and the rich promise of her future.

 

In February 1945, American bombers reduced this treasure to crushed stone and embers; disembowelled her with high explosives and cremated her with incendiaries.

 

The atom bomb may represent a fabulous advance, but it is interesting to note that primitive TNT and thermite managed to exterminate in one bloody night more people than died in the whole London blitz. Fortress Dresden fired a dozen shots at our airmen. Once back at their bases and sipping hot coffee, they probably remarked: “Flak unusually light tonight. Well, guess it’s time to turn in.” Captured British pilots from tactical fighter units (covering frontline troops) used to chide those who had flown heavy bombers on city raids with: “How on earth did you stand the stink of boiling urine and burning perambulators?”

 

A perfectly routine piece of news: “Last night our planes attacked Dresden. All planes returned safely.” The only good German is a dead one: over 100,000 evil men, women, and children (the able-bodied were at the fronts) forever purged of their sins against humanity. By chance, I met a bombardier who had taken part in the attack. “We hated to do it,” he told me.

 

The night they came over, we spent in an underground meat locker in a slaughterhouse. We were lucky, for it was the best shelter in town. Giants stalked the earth above us. First came the soft murmur of their dancing on the outskirts, then the grumbling of their plodding towards us, and finally the ear-splitting crashes of their heels upon us – and thence to the outskirts again. Back and forth they swept: saturation bombing.

 

“I screamed and I wept and I clawed the walls of our shelter,” an old lady told me. “I prayed to God to ‘please, please, please, dear God, stop them’. But he didn’t hear me. No power could stop them. On they came, wave after wave. There was no way we could surrender; no way to tell them we couldn’t stand it any more. There was nothing anyone could do but sit and wait for morning.” Her daughter and grandson were killed.

 

Our little prison was burnt to the ground. We were to be evacuated to an outlying camp occupied by South African prisoners. Our guards were a melancholy lot, aged Volkssturmers and disabled veterans. Most of them were Dresden residents and had friends and families somewhere in the holocaust. A corporal, who had lost an eye after two years on the Russian front, ascertained before we marched that his wife, his two children and both of his parents had been killed. He had one cigarette. He shared it with me.

 

Dresden after the allied bombing
 

Our march to new quarters took us to the city’s edge. It was impossible to believe that anyone had survived in its heart. Ordinarily, the day would have been cold, but occasional gusts from the colossal inferno made us sweat. And ordinarily, the day would have been clear and bright, but an opaque and towering cloud turned noon to twilight.

 

A grim procession clogged the outbound highways; people with blackened faces streaked with tears, some bearing wounded, some bearing dead. They gathered in the fields. No one spoke. A few with Red Cross armbands did what they could for the casualties.

 

Settled with the South Africans, we enjoyed a week without work. At the end of it, communications were reestablished with higher headquarters and we were ordered to hike seven miles to the area hardest hit.

 

Nothing in the district had escaped the fury. A city of jagged building shells, of splintered statuary and shattered trees; every vehicle stopped, gnarled and burnt, left to rust or rot in the path of the frenzied might. The only sounds other than our own were those of falling plaster and their echoes.

 

I cannot describe the desolation properly, but I can give an idea of how it made us feel, in the words of a delirious British soldier in a makeshift POW hospital: “It’s frightenin’, I tell you. I would walk down one of them bloody streets and feel a thousand eyes on the back of me ’ead. I would ’ear ’em whis-perin’ behind me. I would turn around to look at ’em and there wouldn’t be a bloomin’ soul in sight. You can feel ’em and you can ’ear ’em but there’s never anybody there.” We knew what he said was so.

 

For “salvage” work, we were divided into small crews, each under a guard. Our ghoulish mission was to search for bodies. It was rich hunting that day and the many thereafter. We started on a small scale – here a leg, there an arm, and an occasional baby – but struck a mother lode before noon.

 

We cut our way through a basement wall to discover a reeking hash of over 100 human beings. Flame must have swept through before the building’s collapse sealed the exits, because the flesh of those within resembled the texture of prunes. Our job, it was explained, was to wade into the shambles and bring forth the remains. Encouraged by cuffing and guttural abuse, wade in we did. We did exactly that, for the floor was covered with an unsavoury broth from burst water mains and viscera.

 

A number of victims, not killed outright, had attempted to escape through a narrow emergency exit. At any rate, there were several bodies packed tightly into the passageway. Their leader had made it halfway up the steps before he was buried up to his neck in falling brick and plaster. He was about 15, I think.

 

It is with some regret that I here besmirch the nobility of our airmen, but, boys, you killed an appalling lot of women and children. The shelter I have described and innumerable others like it were filled with them. We had to exhume their bodies and carry them to mass funeral pyres in the parks, so I know.

 

The funeral pyre technique was abandoned when it became apparent how great was the toll. There was not enough labour to do it nicely, so a man with a flamethrower was sent down instead, and he cremated them where they lay. Burnt alive, suffocated, crushed – men, women, and children indiscriminately killed.

 

 

 

For all the sublimity of the cause for which we fought, we surely created a Belsen of our own. The method was impersonal, but the result was equally cruel and heartless. That, I am afraid, is a sickening truth.

 

When we had become used to the darkness, the odour and the carnage, we began musing as to what each of the corpses had been in life. It was a sordid game: “Rich man, poor man, beggar man, thief . . .” Some had fat purses and jewellery, others had precious foodstuffs. A boy had his dog still leashed to him.

 

Renegade Ukrainians in German uniform were in charge of our operations in the shelters proper. They were roaring drunk from adjacent wine cellars and seemed to enjoy their job hugely. It was a profitable one, for they stripped each body of valuables before we carried it to the street. Death became so commonplace that we could joke about our dismal burdens and cast them about like so much garbage.

 

Not so with the first of them, especially the young: we had lifted them on to the stretchers with care, laying them out with some semblance of funeral dignity in their last resting place before the pyre. But our awed and sorrowful propriety gave way, as I said, to rank callousness. At the end of a grisly day, we would smoke and survey the impressive heap of dead accumulated. One of us flipped his cigarette butt into the pile: “Hell’s bells,” he said, “I’m ready for Death any time he wants to come after me.”

 

 

 

A few days after the raid, the sirens screamed again. The listless and heartsick survivors were showered this time with leaflets. I lost my copy of the epic, but remember that it ran something like this: “To the people of Dresden: we were forced to bomb your city because of the heavy military traffic your railroad facilities have been carrying. We realise that we haven’t always hit our objectives. Destruction of anything other than military objectives was unintentional, unavoidable fortunes of war.”

 

That explained the slaughter to everyone’s satisfaction, I am sure, but it aroused no little contempt. It is a fact that 48 hours after the last B-17 had droned west for a well-earned rest, labour battalions had swarmed over the damaged rail yards and restored them to nearly normal service. None of the rail bridges over the Elbe was knocked out of commission. Bomb-sight manufacturers should blush to know that their marvellous devices laid bombs down as much as three miles wide of what the military claimed to be aiming for.

 

The leaflet should have said: “We hit every blessed church, hospital, school, museum, theatre, your university, the zoo, and every apartment building in town, but we honestly weren’t trying hard to do it. C’est la guerre. So sorry. Besides, saturation bombing is all the rage these days, you know.”

 

There was tactical significance: stop the railroads. An excellent manoeuvre, no doubt, but the technique was horrible. The planes started kicking high explosives and incendiaries through their bomb-bays at the city limits, and for all the pattern their hits presented, they must have been briefed by a Ouija board.

 

Tabulate the loss against the gain. Over 100,000 noncombatants and a magnificent city destroyed by bombs dropped wide of the stated objectives: the railroads were knocked out for roughly two days. The Germans counted it the greatest loss of life suffered in any single raid. The death of Dresden was a bitter tragedy, needlessly and wilfully executed. The killing of children – “Jerry” children or “Jap” children, or whatever enemies the future may hold for us – can never be justified.

 

The facile reply to great groans such as mine is the most hateful of all clichés, “fortunes of war”, and another: “They asked for it. All they understand is force.”

 

Who asked for it? The only thing who understands is force? Believe me, it is not easy to rationalise the stamping out of vineyards where the grapes of wrath are stored when gathering up babies in bushel baskets or helping a man dig where he thinks his wife may be buried.

 

Certainly, enemy military and industrial installations should have been blown flat, and woe unto those foolish enough to seek shelter near them. But the “Get Tough America” policy, the spirit of revenge, the approbation of all destruction and killing, have earned us a name for obscene brutality.

 

Our leaders had a carte blanche as to what they might or might not destroy. Their mission was to win the war as quickly as possible; and while they were admirably trained to do just that, their decisions on the fate of certain priceless world heirlooms – in one case, Dresden – were not always judicious. When, late in the war, with the Wehrmacht breaking up on all fronts, our planes were sent to destroy this last major city, I doubt if the question was asked: “How will this tragedy benefit us, and how will that benefit compare with the ill-effects in the long run?”

 

Dresden, a beautiful city, built in the art spirit, symbol of an admirable heritage, so antiNazi that Hitler visited it but twice during his whole reign, food and hospital centre so bitterly needed now – ploughed under and salt strewn in the furrows.

 

World war two was fought for near-holy motives. But I stand convinced that the brand of justice in which we dealt, wholesale bombings of civilian populations, was blasphemous. That the enemy did it first has nothing to do with the moral problem. What I saw of our air war, as the European conflict neared an end, had the earmarks of being an irrational war for war’s sake. Soft citizens of the American democracy had learnt to kick a man below the belt and make the bastard scream.

 

The occupying Russians, when they discovered that we were Americans, embraced us and congratulated us on the complete desolation our planes had wrought. We accepted their congratulations with good grace and proper modesty, but I felt then as I feel now, that I would have given my life to save Dresden for the world’s generations to come. That is how everyone should feel about every city on earth.

 

© Kurt Vonnegut Jr Trust 2008

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Click on this text to see: Dresden - Bombing 13.-15.02.1945 US Army Air Force RAF War Crime ...

 

 

Dresden 1945: The Devil's Tinderbox

 

  • Dresden 1945: The Devil's Tinderbox,by Alexander McKee. New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1982, 1984, with maps, photographs, index.

Reviewed by Charles Lutton

 

The destruction of the virtually undefended German city of Dresden by bombers of the Royal Air Force and U.S. Army Air Force, in mid-February, 1945, remains one of the most controversial episodes of the Second World War. In 1963, British historian David Irving published a pathbreaking study on this topic. Another widely-published British military historian, Alexander McKee, has produced a new account of the Dresden bombing, based in part upon an examination of official records recently declassified, as well as interviews from survivors of the attack and Allied airmen who flew in the raids.

 

McKee had doubts about the efficacy of area bombing when, as a soldier with the 1st Canadian Army, he witnessed the results of the Allied bombing of "friendly" French towns. Following visits to the cities of Caen and Lisieux, he wrote in his personal war diary:

 

"Lisieux and Caen are examples of the inflexibility of the four-motor heavy bombers: it cannot block a road without bringing down a city. I'm not surprised that our troops advancing between Caen and Lisiel=c were fired on by French civilians. No doubt many Frenchmen found it hard to be liberated by a people who seem, by their actions, to specialise in the mass murder of their friends."

 

McKee was an eye-witness to the final destruction of the towns of Emmerich and Arnhem. He related that, "In Emmerich I saw no building whatever intact .... This process, when the town was an Allied one, we referred to with bitter mockery as 'Liberation.' When you said that such-and-such a place had been 'liberated,' you meant that hardly one stone still stood upon another."

 

The bombing of urban areas which might contain targets of military importance was a policy advocated by leading British air strategists long before the outbreak of the war. McKee reviewed the writings of the air power theorists of the 1920s and 30s, observing that "retreading them now is like browsing through a British Mein Kampf. The horror to come is all there between the lines. What they are really advocating is an all-out attack on non-combatants, men, women, and children, as a deliberate policy of terror?"

 

After sifting through the evidence, the author refers to these proferred justifications as the "standard white-wash gambit." There was a military barracks in Dresden, but it was located on the out skirts of the "New Town," miles away from the selected target area. There were some hutted camps in the city-full of starving refugees who had fled from the advancing Red Terror in the East. The main road route passed on the west outside the city limits. The railway network led to an important junction, but this, too, passed outside the center of the "Old City," which was the focal point for the bombing attacks. No railway stations were on the British target maps, nor, apparently, were bridges, the destruction of which could have impeded German communications with the Eastern Front. And despite the claims of U.S. Air Force historians, writing in 1978, that "The Secretary of War had to be appraised of ... the Russian request for its neutralization," the author has unearthed no evidence of such a Soviet request.

 

What the author has discovered about the attack is that:

 

  • By the end of Summer, 1944, "there is evidence that the Western Allies were contemplating some terrible but swift end to the war by committing an atrocity which would terrify the enemy into instant surrender. Without doubt, the inner truth has still to be prised loose, but the thread of thought can be discerned."

  • "The bomber commanders were not really interested in any purely military or economic targets .... What they were looking for was a big built-up area which they could burn .... The attraction Dresden had for Bomber Command was that the centre of the city should burn easily and magnificentlv: as indeed it was to do."

  • At the time of the attacks on February 13-14, 1945, the inhabitants of Dresden were mostly women and children, many of whom had just arrived as refugees from the East. There were also large numbers of Allied POWs. Few German males of military age were left in the city environs. The author cites the official Bomber Command history prepared by Sir Charles Webster and Dr. Noble Frankland, which reveals that "the unfortunate, frozen, starving civilian refugees were the first object of the attack, before military movements "

  • Dresden was virtually undefended. Luftwaffe fighters stationed in the general vicinity were grounded for lack of fuel. With the exception of a few light guns, the anti-aircraft batteries had been dismantled for employment elsewhere. McKee quotes one British participant in the raid, who reported that "our biggest problem, quite truly, was with the chance of being hit by bombs from other Lancasters flying above us."

  • Targets of genuine military significance were not hit, and had not even been included on the official list of targets. Among the neglected military targets was the railway bridge spanning the Elbe River, the destruction of which could have halted rail traffic for months. The railway marshalling yards in Dresden were also outside the RAF target area. The important autobahn bridge to the west of the city was not attacked. Rubble from damaged buildings did interrupt the flow of traffic within the city, "but in terms of the Eastern Front communications network, road transport was virtually unimpaired."

  • In the course of the USAF daylight raids, American fighter- bombers strafed civilians: "Amongst these people who had lost everything in a single night, panic broke out. Women and children were massacred with cannon and bombs. It was mass murder." American aircraft even attacked animals in the Dresden Zoo. The USAF was still at it in late April, with Mustangs strafing Allied POWs they discovered working in fields.

  • The author concludes that, "Dresden had been bombed for political and not military reasons; but again, without effect. There was misery, but it did not affect the war." Some have suggested that the bombing of Dresden was meant to serve as a warning to Stalin of what sort of destruction the Western Powers were capable of dealing. If that was their intent, it certainly failed to accomplish the objective.

Once word leaked out that the Dresden raids were generally viewed as terrorist attacks against civilians, those most responsible for ordering the bombings tried to avoid their just share of the blame. McKee points out that:

 

"In both the UK and the U.S.A. a high level of sophistication was to be employed in order to excuse or justify the raids, or to blame them on someone else. It is difficult to think of any other atrocity -- and there were many in the Second World War -- which has produced such an extraordinary aftermath of unscrupulous and mendacious polemics."

 

Who were the men to blame for the attacks? The author reveals that:

 

"It was the Prime Minister himself who in effect had signed the death warrant for Dresden, which had been executed by Harris [chief of RAF Bomber Command]. And it was Churchill, too, who in the beginning had enthusiastically backed the bomber marshals in carrying out the indiscriminate area bombing policy in which they all believed. They were all in it together. Portal himself [head of the RAF, Harris of course, Trenchard [British air theorist] too, and the Prime Minister most of all. And many lesser people."

 

An aspect of the Dresden bombing that remains a question today is how many people died during the attacks of February 13-14, 1945. The city was crammed with uncounted refugees and many POWs in transit. when the raids took place. The exact number of casualties will never be known. McKee believed that the official figures were understated, and that 35,000 to 45,000 died, though "the figure of 35,000 for one night's massacre alone might easily be doubled to 70,000 without much fear of exaggeration, I feel."

 

Alexander McKee has written a compelling account of the destruction of Dresden. Although the author served with the British armed forces during the war, his attitude toward the events he describes reminds this reviewer of McKee's fellow Brit, Royal Navy Captain Russell Grenfell, who played a key role in the sinking of the battleship Bismarck, but who, after the war, wrote a classic of modern revisionism, Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (1953). Likewise, Dresden 1945, deserves a place in any revisionist's library.

From The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1985 (Vol. 6, No. 2), pages 247-250.

 

 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The ‘Dehousing Paper’ 

                 The Real Extermination Policy – How to Murder 25 Million Germans and get away with it


The British R.A.F. policy to murder at least a third of Germany’s civilian population and “Break their spirit” – manifested from the ‘Dehousing Paper’


 


On 30 March 1942, Professor Frederick LindemannBaron Cherwell, the British government’s Chief Scientific Adviser (appointed by Churchill), who wielded more influence than any other civilian adviser and was said to have “an almost pathological hatred for Germany, and an almost medieval desire for revenge” as part of his character – sent to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, a memorandum, which after it had been accepted by the Cabinet, became known as the ‘Dehousing Paper.’

 

The paper was delivered during a debate within the British government about the most effective use of the nation’s resources in waging war on Germany. Should the Royal Air Force (RAF) be reduced to allow more resources to go to the British Army and Royal Navy, or should the strategic bombing option be expanded to civilian targets?

 

The paper argued that the demolition of people’s houses (containing mostly women and children, as men were absent on military duties) was the most effective way to affect the German morale, even more effectively than killing their relatives.


Given the known limits of the RAF in locating targets in Germany at the time and providing that the planned resources were made available to the RAF in the near future, destroying about thirty percent of the “Housing Stock” of Germany’s fifty-eight largest towns was considered the most effective use of the aircraft of RAF Bomber Command, because it would “Break the spirit of the Germans.”


After a heated debate by the government’s military and scientific Advisers, the Cabinet voted for the “Expanded” strategic bombing campaign, over the other options available to them… in complete violation and defiance of all International Humanitarian Laws, the Hague Conventions, Laws of War and the Geneva Conventions – essentially, voted to approve of committing War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity.

 

Since November 1941 the RAF had been husbanding its resources and awaiting the introduction of large numbers of four-engined “heavy” bombers and the GEE radio-navigational device into front-line service.


Bombing policy had, in actuality, already moved away from attempts at precision bombing.

 

The paper was produced by Cherwell and the information was given by the researchers in response to questions posed by Cherwell.

 

Excerpt:


“The following seems a simple method of estimating what we could do by bombing Germany.

 

We know from our experience that we can count on nearly fourteen operational sorties per bomber produced. The average lift of the bombers we are going to produce over the next fifteen months will be about 3 tons. It follows that each of these bombers will in its life-time drop about 40 tons of bombs. If these are dropped on built-up areas they will make 4000–8000 people homeless.

 

In 1938 over 22 million Germans lived in fifty-eight towns of over 100,000 inhabitants, which, with modern equipment, should be easy to find and hit. Our forecast output of heavy bombers (including Wellingtons) between now and the middle of 1943 is about 10,000. If even half the total load of 10,000 bombers were dropped on the built-up areas of these fifty-eight German towns, the great majority of their inhabitants (about one-third of the German population) would be turned out of house and home… [that is political linguistics for saying, mass murder, terrorism or genocide]

 

Investigation seems to show that having one’s home demolished is most damaging to morale. People seem to mind it more than having their friends or even relatives killed. At Hull signs of strain were evident, though only one-tenth of the houses were demolished. On the above figures we should be able to do ten times as much harm to each of the fifty-eight principal German towns. There seems little doubt that this would break the spirit of the people.

 

Our calculation assumes, of course, that we really get one-half of our bombs into built-up areas. On the other hand, no account is taken of the large promised American production (6,000 heavy bombers in the period in question). Nor has regard been paid to the inevitable damage to factories, communications, etc, in these towns and the damage by fire, probably accentuated by breakdown of public services.”

 


Churchill
Stated in British Parliament 1943

 

Lindemann believed that a small circle of the intelligent and the aristocratic should run the world, resulting in a peaceable and stable society, “led by supermen and served by helots.” Many sources say he was Jewish, others do not, but for an immigrant born in Germany and the son of a wealthy banker, to hold such hated toward Germans, one can only surmise. Sometimes considered to be anti-democratic, insensitive and elitist, Lindemann was in complete support and promotion of eugenics, he held the working class, homosexuals, Germans and blacks in contempt and, supported sterilisation of who he saw as mentally incompetent. Referring to Lindemann’s lecture on Eugenics, Mukerjee concluded science could yield a race of humans blessed with “the mental make-up of the worker bee”….At the lower end of the race and class spectrum, one could remove the ability to suffer or to feel ambition….Instead of subscribing to what he called “the fetish of equality,” Lindemann recommended that human differences should be accepted and indeed enhanced by means of science. It was no longer necessary, he wrote, to wait for “the haphazard process of natural selection to ensure that the slow and heavy mind gravitates to the lowest form of activity.”

 


Pictures: Lindemann’s “Housing Stock” turned
“Out of House and Home”
“Dehoused”

 

Holocaust: (frm Greek) Holos Kaustos – ‘Whole Burnt’

 



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                                                                               A Real ‘Holocaust Survivor’



 

Declassified documents confirm the horror of this policy and that Winston Churchill finds this kind of wanton destruction and terror “Impressive”see here


 

“The destruction of German cities, the killing of German workers, and the disruption of civilized community life throughout Germany is the goal… It should be emphasized that the destruction of houses, public utilities, transport and lives; the creation of a refugee problem on an unprecedented scale; and the breakdown of morale both at home and at the battle fronts by fear of extended and intensified bombing are accepted and intended aims of our bombing policy.  They are not by-products of attempts to hit factories.”


Air Marshal Arthur Harris (aka ‘Bomber Harris’), Bomber Commander, British R.A.F., October 25, 1943 – Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, Tammi Biddle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), p. 220.

 

“Will there be room [for the German refugees, fleeing before the Red army] in what is left of Germany? We have killed six or seven million Germans and probably there will be another million or so killed before the end of the war.”


– Winston Churchill, as noted by James F. Byrnes‘ at the Plenary Session at Yalta, February 7, 1945 – 5 days before the Dresden Holocaust – (H. S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri)

 

“The Prime Minister said that we hoped to shatter twenty German cities as we had shattered Cologne, Lubeck, Dusseldorf, and so on. More and more aeroplanes and bigger and bigger bombs. Marshal Stalin had heard of 2-ton bombs. We had now begun to use 4-ton bombs, and this would be continued throughout the winter. If need be, as the war went on, we hoped to shatter almost every dwelling in almost every German city.”


– Official transcript of the meeting at the Kremlin between Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin on Wednesday, August 12, 1942, at 7 P.M.

 

“The destruction of factories, which was nevertheless on an enormous scale, could be regarded as a bonus.  The aiming-points were usually right in the center of the town.”


– Arthur Harris, Bomber Offensive (London: HarperCollins, 1947), p. 147.


 


 

Somehow, War Criminals who, in complete contravention of every International Convention and Treaty they were signatory to; intentionally planned, voted for and physically conducted one of, if not the biggest Crimes Against Humanity ever committed… then exhalted themselves into a position of Prosecution against the defeated at the Nuremberg Show Trials, while proclaiming themselves exempt from the so-called law which they administered – in the biggest spectacle of ‘Conflict of Interest‘ the world has ever been subjected to!


Therefore, legally speaking, all findings of the Nuremberg Show Trials should be revoked and a new trial convened, in order to bring light to; the true crimes and partied criminals – who have never been brought to accountability – public acknowledgement of the true victims, posthumous exoneration for those convicted at the Show Trials and in the very least… an apology!

 

“We should never allow ourselves to apologize for what we did to Germany.” – Winston Churchill to John Lawrence, quoted in Max Hastings, Bomber Command (NY: Dial Press, 1979), p. 107.

 


 

Watch ‘Hellstorm’ – the documentary film exposing the
Real Genocide of WWII Germany

 


“The millions of Jews living in America, England, France, North Africa and South, not forgetting Palestine, have decided to carry on the war in Germany to the very end. It is to be a war of extermination.” ~ ‘The Jewish newspaper, ‘Central Blad Voor Israeliten’ in Nederlands (13 September 1939)

 

In a BBC interview, allied witness and British POW, Victor Gregg, confirms the genocidal Western policy as “Pure Evil” – 70 years after he survived the unnecessary Holocaust of Dresden in February, 1945… at wars end, when German defeat was clearly evident and All-lied victory was already in sight – none of these people were a threat to anybody.

 

Victor Gregg speaks of the RAF Bomber Pilots who were just “Doing their job” and “Following orders” – they are not to be blamed?

 

History should not be judged by double standards!


Click on this text to hear/watch Lady Michelle Renouf speaking in Dresden - February 17th, 2018

13 February 1945: Approximately 500,000 German Refugees Burned Alive by Allied Forces in Dresden


The professional liars who act on behalf of the official historiography of the Federal Republic of Germany shamelessly reduce the death toll of the Dresden holocaust by several hundreds of thousands.


On the other hand, nobody disputes that more than 12.000 houses in the center of the city were reduced to dust during the hellish firestorm. In view of the fact that, in addition to the 600.000 inhabitants of Dresden, another 600.000 people (refugees from Breslau) had found shelter in the overcrowded city, one can safely assume that each of these 12.000 houses contained no fewer than 50 people.


But of these houses virtually nothing remained, and the people who had been dwelling in them were transformed into ashes due to a heat of 1600 degrees Celsius. The deniers of the German Holocaust brazenly claim that only 35.000 persons perished in Dresden. Considering that a superficies of 7 x 4 kilometers, to wit 28 square kilometers, was completely destroyed, this "politically correct” figure would imply that less than 1, 5 persons died on each thousand square meters! In February 2005 a commission of "serious” historians further reduced this figure, claiming that only 24.000 Germans had been killed in Dresden. But anybody familiar with the character of the political system of Germany knows that these "serious historians” are nothing but vulgar falsifiers of history who are paid for preventing the breakthrough of the truth with more and more bare-faced lies.
 

The figure of 35.000 dead only represents the small part of the victims who could be fully identified. Erhard Mundra, a member of the "Bautzen committee” (an association of former political prisoners in the GDR), wrote in the daily newspaper Die Welt (12.2. 1995, page 8): "According to the former general staff officer of the military district of Dresden and retired lieutenant colonel of the Bundeswehr, D. Matthes, 35.000 victims were fully and another 50.000 partly identified, whereas further 168.000 could not be identified at all.” It goes without saying that the hapless children, women and old people whom the firestorm had transformed into a heap of ashes could not be identified either.


In 1955 former West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer stated: "On 13 February 1945, the attack on the city of Dresden, which was overcrowded with refugees, claimed about 250.000 victims.” (Deutschland heute, edited by the press and information service of the federal government, Wiesbaden 1955, page 154.)


In 1992, the city of Dresden gave the following answer to a citizen who had inquired about the death toll: "According to reliable information from the Dresden police, 202.040 dead, most of them women and children, were found until 20 March. Only about 30% of them could be identified. If we take into account those who are missing, a figure of 250.000 to 300.000 victims seems realistic.” (letter by Hitzscherlich, Sign: 0016/Mi, date: 31 - 7 - 1992.)


At the time of the attack, Dresden had no anti-aircraft guns and no military defense. It possessed no military industry at all. The city served as a shelter for refugees from the East. The roofs were marked with a red cross.


The German cities became huge crematoria.


In that horrible night from 13 to 14 February 1945, the biggest war criminal of all time, Winston Churchill, had almost 700.000 incendiary bombs dropped on Dresden – in other words, one bomb for two inhabitants. On 3 March 1995, Die Welt commented this fact: "When the cities became crematoria… Professor Dietmar Hosser from the institute for construction material, massive construction and fire prevention deems it highly probable that the temperatures above ground reached up to 1600 degrees Celsius.”The deadly "liberation” came from the skies


The genocide of the German nation destroyed "80% of all German cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants”. The air forces of the Allied war criminals dropped "40.000 tons of bombs in 1942, 120.000 tons in 1943, 650.000 tons in 1944 and another 500.000 tons in the four last months of the war in 1945” (Die Welt, 11 February 1995, page G1).


The Germans did not begin the bombing war!


It should be reminded that Great Britain and France declared war on the German Reich on 3 September 1939, and that England began the terror bombing against the German civilian population as early as two days after its declaration of war. On 5 September 1939 the first raids took place against Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven; on 12 January 1940, Westerland/Sylt was bombed. Two weeks later, on 25 January, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht forbade air raids against Britain, including her ports, an exception being made for the docks of Rosyth. On 20 March, Kiel and Hörnum/Sylt were attacked with 110 explosive and incendiary bombs, which hit and destroyed a hospital. In April 1940, British bombers attacked further towns devoid of military importance. On 11 May 1940, one day after being named Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, Winston Churchill decided to order a massive air offensive against the German civilian population; however he did not inform his own people of his decision. On 18 May 1940, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht reported more meaningless British attacks on non-military aims and warned Britain of the consequences.


Not before 14/15 November 1940 did the Luftwaffe first attack a British city – Coventry with its important military industry. This happened several months after the start of the British terror bombing against civilian targets in Germany. The raid claimed about 600 victims.


Air-warfare expert Sönke Neitzel concludes: "Indisputably during the first years of the war all heavy attacks of the German Luftwaffe against cities were planned as military blows and cannot be defined as terror raids.” (Darmstädter Echo, 25 – 9 – 2004, p. 4)


Historians: "The British and American peoples share the burden of guilt for the genocide of the Germans”


In September 1988, military historians from five countries met at a conference in Freiburg. The event had been organized by the Institute for Military Research of the Bundeswehr. During a week, American, British, German, French and Italian specialist discussed various aspects of air warfare in the Second World War. After the conference, the daily newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine published a detailed and highly interesting article. Under the headline "Bombing the Cities”, the author, Professor Günter Gillessen, wrote: "It is a remarkable fact that the Wehrmacht stuck to the traditional principles of moderate warfare until the very end, whereas the two Western democracies resorted to a revolutionary, radical and reckless type of air warfare.” Another interesting conclusion the historians arrived at was the following: "It cannot be disputed that the principles of international law forbade total carpeting bombing … The historians considered the indiscriminate bombing as an abomination, but refused to lay the whole guilt on Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris or the Bomber Command. According to them, the entire staff of the RAF, but even more the political leaders, especially Churchill and Roosevelt, plus the majority of their peoples shared the burden of guilt.”


Churchill wanted to roast German refugees.


On 13 February 1990, forty-five years after the destruction of Dresden, British historian David Irving spoke at the Dresden "Kulturpalast". In his speech, Irving quoted the war criminal Winston Churchill: "I don't want any suggestions how to destroy militarily important targets around Dresden. I want suggestions how blasting the Germans in their retreat from Breslau." (Minute by A.P.S. of S. - Air Chief Marshal Sir Wilfrid Freeman- Jan 26, 1945 in "Air Historical Branch file CMS.608") But for Churchill, roasting the Germans was not enough. On the morning after the firebombing, he ordered his "Tiefflieger" (strafers, low-flying planes) to machine-gun the survivors on the beaches of the river Elbe.Churchill’s systematic war of extermination against the German people included plans for the destruction of every house in every German city. "’If it has to be, we hope to be able to destroy nearly every house in every German city.’… In March 1945 Churchill began to doubt the wisdom of bombing German cities ‘simply for the sake of increasing the terror’, but the terror continued.” (Die Welt, 11 February 2005, p. 27)


The German elite accuses the victims...


Whereas the butcher Churchill actually felt some belated remorse for his war of extermination against the civilian population of Germany, the despicable German post-war elite awarded him the Karlspreis (Charlemagne prize) of Aachen. Churchill accepted this prize in Aachen, one of the countless cities his air-force had devastated, thereby burning alive countless human beings.


Since then, the elite of the German vassal state has not changed. They continue to praise the murderers and to revile the victims. On the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of the destruction of his city, the mayor of Dresden, Ingolf Rossberg, did not shrink from heaping abuse on the German holocaust victims; he practically justified the murder of hundreds of thousands (most of them women, children and wounded soldiers in the hospitals) plus the annihilation of irreplaceable cultural treasures: "60 years after the devastating bombing, which claimed tens of thousands of victims, mayor Ingolf Rossberg warned against misunderstanding Dresden as an ‘innocent city’.” (Die Welt, 12 February 2005, Internet version).


Thus spoke the mayor of a city which had received streams of people, animals and carriages like a caring mother. The streets and squares of Dresden were filled with refugees, the meadows and parks had been transformed into huge camps. When the fatal hour approached, about 1.130.000 people were living in Dresden. The result of the attacks was even more murderous than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


Only the German victims are guilty, not their murderers!


As American, British, German, French and Italian historians ascertained at the Freiburg conference in 1988, not only the main war criminals Churchill and Roosevelt bear the guilt for history’s worst atrocity. The majority of the British and the American population were not blameless either.


The German weekly Der Spiegel stated in its 1/1995 issue: "About six million Germans were killed." As a matter of fact, the actual figure was about fifteen million. But although even the anti-German Spiegel admits that six million Germans were put to death, the German elite only bemoans Jewish victims.


On 12 February 1995, Ernst Cramer wrote in Die Welt (page 12): "When commemorating the victims, we should stop asking about guilt.” And what had the politically super-correct former German president, Roman Herzog, to say about who was guilty of the German genocide? Speaking in Dresden on 13 February 1995, Herzog chose to insult the victims by stating: "It is meaningless to discuss if the bombing war, the inhumanity of which nobody disputes, was legally justified or not. What are such discussions good for, considering that fifty years have elapsed?” (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 14 February 1995, p. 1)


But when it comes to monstrously exaggerating the Auschwitz death toll (according to the well-known journalist Fritjof Meyer, three and a half million Auschwitz victims were simply invented in order to denigrate the German people) the professional hypocrites and liars never say: "It is meaningless to discuss this… What are such discussions good for, considering that so and so many years have elapsed?” As a matter of fact, all leading German politicians claim that Germany is guilty in all eternity. Even the unborn Germans are guilty!


Two measures...


Let us resume: Not even the responsibles deny that the German cities were transformed into crematoria during World War Two. The total amounts of bombs dropped on the German cities has been confirmed by the criminals themselves and is therefore credible. That six million Germans were killed, was confirmed by the anti-German Spiegel and by official statistics, although the real figure is about 15 million. Nevertheless every liar under the sun apparently has the right to affirm that the allied terror bombings claimed only a handful of victims. These brazen falsifiers of history have nothing to fear from the German justice.


The biggest mass murder in history...


The "democrats”, who claim to have "liberated” the German people from Hitler, brought nothing but terror and destruction. In Dresden, they murdered several hundreds of thousands people in one single hellish night and destroyed countless cultural treasures. Women who were giving birth to children in the delivery rooms of the burning hospitals jumped out of the windows, but within minutes, these mothers and their children, who were still hanging at the umbilical cords, were reduced to ashes too. Thousands of people whom the incendiary bombs had transformed into living torches jumped into the ponds, but phosphorus continues to burn even in the water. Even the animals from the zoo, elephants, lions and others, desperately headed for the water, together with the humans. But all of them, the new-born child, the mother, the old man, the wounded soldier and the innocent animal from the zoo and the stable, horribly perished in the name of "liberation".
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



The death toll of Dresden has been subject to raging controversy from the day after the bombing. Vonnegut is probably on the money. The most likely figure is 100,000 despite the efforts of both sides to minimise it since the tenacious David Irving discovered a British decode that supports the evidence of German schoolteacher, Hanns Voigt:



.

 

BOMBING CIVILIANS (World War II)

  Allied War Crimes

[Bombing cities and civilians was actually started by Britain, Germany then retaliated. One of Churchill's (and Lindemann) war crimes (700,000 Phosphorus bombs were dropped on Dresden, deliberately killing over 500,000---During this time there were more than 1,2 Million people in Dresden, 600,000 Dresden citizens, plus 600,000 refugees from Breslau). This fits the definition of holocaust: 'Holocaust -- from the meaning wholly burnt.  1) a sacrifice wholly consumed by fire.  2) complete consumption by fire'.  Oxford English Dictionary.  Another war crime is the Mass Starvation of Germans, 1945-1950.  With the use of phosphorous, the majority of the German men, women, and children indiscriminately killed in the air war perished from the inhalation of poisonous carbon monoxide gas, hence the gas proof bomb shelters (see below), that they managed to pass off as 'gas chambers' for the Holocaust hoax.]

 

Saturday 7th September 1940 - was the first day of the Blitz.  The first RAF raid on the interior of Germany took place on the night of 15/16 May 1940By the end of May 1941, over 43,000 civilians, half of them in London, had been killed by bombing.  About 50,000 British civilians compared to 1.5 million Germans?

 

See: Allied War Crimes

 

Quotes


Phosphorus


Pictures


    Dresden, before and after

[2015 Feb] Our Unprecedented WWII Atrocities  Prior to the atomic attack on Japan, the US waged a firebombing war, not on the Japanese military, or its industries, but on innocent Japanese men, women, and children, beginning with the dropping of 700,000 incendiary bombs on Tokyo. Two nights later, a force of more than five hundred B-29s again struck the heart of the Japanese Empire with 4,000 tons of incendiaries.   Those Tokyo firebombs brought more horror than our minds can comprehend, but the resulting winds wrought even more terror. The heat from the flaming cauldrons below was so intense that the B-29s flying above were often buffeted upwards by as much as 4,000 feet.  US reconnaissance photographs showed that 51.3 square miles of what was once Tokyo, teeming with seven million human beings, had been reduced to ashes, with the lingering stench of burnt human flesh. It was then that US General Curtis LeMay, who had been so successful in firebombing millions of innocent German citizens, smothered Yokohama with 3,200 tons of firebombs.

 

Allied Use of Delay-Action Bombs (aka Long-Term Chemical Detonator Bombs) and their Effects Contrary to the claims of the “Court Historians”, the Allied Terror-Bombing Campaign was not intended for the destruction military targets, as my previous post demonstrate, but rather, to “de-house” and to kill as many German civilians as possible….. Many of the bombs which were dropped upon German cities contained a perfidious mechanism which, rather than exploding immediately upon contact with the ground or with buildings, were designed to explode hours or days later, thereby causing harm to survivors when they had emerged from their bomb shelters and cellars. They also caused serious danger to the Fire Fighters and Rescue personnel, sometimes killing them or making their duties virtually impossible to carry out. Both the British and Americans had these types of ordinances in their arsenals and also and frequently deployed them. Yes, this is how the so-called “good guys” and “liberators” waged war.

 

Churchill’s Policy of Deliberately Bombing German Civilians – A British War Crime  Video: Excerpts from a presentation by historian David Irving from the late 1980s / early 90s in Germany in which he explains how it was the British who started the aerial bombing and the targeting of civilians, and how it was Churchill, from the beginning, who made it British policy, knowing full well that it was a war crime. The intent was to eventually force Hitler to retaliate in kind. Hitler, himself, had always opposed the targeting of civilian populations, even long before the war. Moreover, this was a deliberate policy of subverting Hitler’s attempts to make peace by instigating hatred of the Germans in England. Irving provides some details of Hitler’s peace initiatives and terms. It is well documented that Hitler and had always sought friendship with England. It was the British war mongers in Parliament, however, who long before 1939 had been instigating for war. Statistics are also provided here which demonstrate how little damage was actually done to German industry and military production as compared to the monstrous destruction of German cities and towns, resulting in heavy civilian casualties.

 

Who Started the Bombing of Cities and Targeting of Civilians in World War II?  Regarding England, the fact is, that Germany endured a solid 5 months of bombing of its cities and civilians before responding in kind. The city of Coventry endured a mere 380 dead. While regrettable, that was absolutely minuscule in comparison to the bombing of hundreds of German cities and towns, and the casualties which the German side endured by this unprovoked, criminal British policy of targeting civilians.

 

[2003] The Allied Holocaust At Dresden By Don Harkins

[2007] Dresden Holocaust: Slaughter Of 500,000 German Civilians

 

How Britain Pioneered City Bombing by Nicholas Kollerstrom, PhD The Blitz on London in 1940 came in response to the initiation of city bombing by Britain some months earlier. Few now accept this rudimentary fact, central to Britain’s role in initiating World War II ‘The exclusion of non-combatants from the scope of hostilities is the fundamental distinction between civilised and barbarous warfare.’

 

[2001] TERROR BOMBING: THE CRIME OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael Walsh

 

Defending Against the Allied Bombing Campaign: Air Raid Shelters and Gas Protection in Germany, 1939-1945, by Samuel Crowell 

 

[1945] Air Raid on Dresden Killed More Than 300,000

 

See: Churchill  Professor Frederick Lindemann Eisenhower Mass Starvation of Germans, 1945-1950   Holocaust  Agent Orange  Napalm  Phosphorus  Depleted Uranium  Red Army rape

 

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Books


[2014 Book, Film] Hellstorm: The Death of Nazi Germany, 1944-1947 by Thomas Goodrich


[2007] Apocalypse 1945: the Destruction of Dresden by David Irving


The Fire: The Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945 by Jörg Friedrich
.  Combining meticulous research with striking descriptions, Jörg Friedrich renders in acute detail the Allies' air campaign of systematic destruction of civilian life, cultural treasures, and industrial capacities in Germany's city landscape. He includes personal stories and firsthand testimony of German civilians, creating a portrait of unimaginable suffering, horror, and grief. He also draws on official military documents to unravel the reasoning behind the Allies' strikes.


Inferno: The Devastation of Hamburg, 1943 By Keith Lowe. Reviews


[1960] The Night Hamburg Died by Martin Caidin.


[1968] Advance to Barbarism by F.J.P Veale

 

Bombs over Dresden by Franz Kurowski

 
 
 
 

Dresden

John Moffat


 

A visit to Dresden provides proof positive that Germans, staggering under a monumental weight of white guilt, lead the way in the suicide of the west.

 

On a recent visit to Germany I was quickly disabused of my notion that atonement for the sins of the fathers would be perhaps subject to some kind of statute of limitations. Surely, generations after the cataclysm of the Second World War, Germans would be entitled to feel at least some diminution of the guilt attached to their country’s supposed single-handed initiation of a world war (no, make that total blame for two world wars) and the alleged attempted genocide of a charmingly innocent racial/religious group.

 

But no, this peculiar brand of evil appears to have leached into the very DNA of the Germans. It is as though babies born in Germany of White mothers arrive with indelibly blood-stained hands. Like children born into religions, they are born into guilt.  Ironically, the efforts of Hitler and the entire apparatus of the Third Reich in tirelessly identifying who were Germans and who were not has made it ridiculously easy to determine who to pin the everlasting blame on — those who are unable to identify as anyone other than a German. Non-German citizens of Germany need not be concerned.

 

What has led me to so unshakable a conviction? In a word, Dresden — more specifically, the murder of Dresden over two apocalyptic days in February 1945. This is a subject which has fascinated and appalled me since long ago reading The Destruction of Dresden by David Irving. It is this book from which most of the facts and figures relating to the atrocity given here come, as well as from Thomas Goodrich’s Hellstorm: The Death of Nazi Germany, 1944–1947. One cannot read these two books without being forced to conclude that the holocaust that consumed Dresden was a war crime reaching a level of evil on a par with those committed against Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Tokyo. But guilt in these atrocities has never been expressed, let alone admitted, nor will ever be admitted. Platitudes and rationalizations are offered instead.

 



 

Minutes after arriving in the, a garrulous receptionist informs me of a not-to-be-missed tourist attraction. It’s an exhibition purported to be a memorial to the city’s destruction over seventy years ago. My interest is immediately piqued. I naively presume, if one couldn’t possibly hope that guilt is actually eradicated, at least a finger — even the tiniest pinky — of blame, may be pointing in the right direction.

 

Dresden Panometer

 

I hire a bicycle and pedal out to where the receptionist has directed me. The exhibition, truly on a giant scale, is housed within perfectly suited accommodation. It is a converted gas storage unit, located unsurprisingly on Gasanstaltstrasse. If the type of hulking water reservoirs that sit astride hilltops can be imagined, this provides a good facsimile of the housing of the Panometer. It is thirty meters high.  On entering the gloom and resounding funereal music of the exhibition, one is struck by the cathedral-like inner space. In the center is a winding steel staircase leading to three platforms spaced evenly apart. Each platform naturally provides a different perspective of what makes the exhibition so phenomenal — a gigantic, seamless 360-degree photographic montage of Dresden not long after the attack. One becomes effectively wrapped around in a scene of total devastation. This in fact would have been the perspective of the photographer snapping the originals from what obviously must have been an exceedingly precarious vantage point. He evidently rotated while photographing to achieve the circular panorama that leads one into the illusion of being at his side while he worked. Adding to this eerie, surreality is the alternately dimming and brightening lighting as well as flashes of light and synchronized musical percussion to approximate exploding bombs. This is a uniquely moving experience.

 

However, I was expecting more: some kind of homage — or at least even a mention — of the multitude who met such horrible deaths. But no, not even a mention even of the absurdly low official estimate of 25,000.

 

But that’s not to say there were no victims. As I explored further, I found them — small photographic portraits with accompanying accounts of tormented lives. Of course! Like everything else about the war, especially in Germany, it was all about the Jews. The sad faces frozen by photography were all Jewish faces — the true victims of the Dresden atrocity. That they weren’t there at the time is a fact not allowed to spoil a good story. They had been removed prior to the attack and who knows how many may have popped up again in Israel in the following years, quite unlike the Dresdeners whose numbers would have overflowed a major sports stadium. They would not be popping up again anywhere. But ‘Oy vey, how we’ve suffered!’.

 

The unremitting tale of woe remarkably avoids any mention of the tens of thousands of Germans incinerated, atomized, crushed like bugs or simply driven insane on the 13th and 14th of February 1945 when the war was all but lost and largely only continuing because of the demand for unconditional surrender. This had been adroitly exploited by Goebbels to convey the not unfounded impression that Germany would be erased either way. The infamous Morganthau Plan, the implementation of which would have resulted in millions of German deaths and Kaufman’s book Germany Must Perish advocating genocide through sterilization did nothing to allay those fears. So, better to die on your feet.

 

 
 

 

In line with the assertion that the Jews had been the true victims of Dresden, comes the astonishing opinion that ‘the destruction of the cultural metropolis of Dresden had long since begun with the assumption of power of the National Socialists.’ It is an accepted fact that history is written by the winners, but it beggars belief that the losers could be acquiescing so enthusiastically.

 

The methodology of the attack on Dresden had been honed to perfection by Arthur “Bomber” Harris, Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command, who’d been charged by Churchill with the total destruction of German cities and its concomitant maximum death toll. It was a given that this could be achieved by targeting densely populated working-class areas. The bonus here was the concomitant disruption of war production because of dead or homeless workers. Inexhaustibly energetic, he’d gone about his task with the dedication and efficiency of an evil genius. For example, he had typically amoral scientists working out formulas showing deaths to be caused per ton of explosive.  Before Dresden, the destruction of Hamburg in 1944 was a triumph that needed to be studied. More people were killed in one night than the number of deaths caused during the entire London blitz. An evidently intended and even foreseen consequence of the Hamburg attack was the firestorm. This was a hurricane of flame engendered by a myriad of incendiaries causing winds violent enough to roll locomotives. They rushed into the vacuum left by a volcanic up-draft of super-heated air. The city was effectively converted into a blast furnace. This must have come to the perpetrators as the type of surprise one might experience on discovering an extra present under a Christmas tree. All the while, the fiction was being maintained that the infernal destruction of Germany was merely the surgical elimination of military/strategic targets.

 

 

Through more than four years of the most savage war ever fought, Dresden had led something of a charmed life. Barely damaged by the violence swirling about them, Dresdeners had slipped into a comfortable sense of false security. After all, apart from an east-west rail-line along which soldiers were transported, the city was devoid of military value. In their naïveté, the inhabitants also reasoned that a kind of tacit agreement had been established whereby if the cultural equivalent of Oxford was left alone, the architectural treasure-house of the Dresden Altstadt, the old city, that had earned the city the reputation of being the ‘Florence of the North’, would be spared. It was after all a cultural heirloom, not just to Germany, but to the civilized world. It was inconceivable that it would be specifically targeted, and by racial kinsmen. But that is exactly what it was.

 

Since it was considered a safe haven, it was packed with those fleeing the primitive barbarity of the Red Army. The Dresden population of 650,000 had become swollen by another 400,000 refugees, wounded soldiers and POWs.

 

How could they possibly have suspected they were about to become pawns in a game played with the devil? They would be destroyed not because of a military rationale that may have shortened the war by even an hour, but simply for political reasons. Because of Stalin’s quite accurate assertion that the Soviet Union was bearing the brunt of the European war and his complaint that his allies weren’t doing enough to help (notwithstanding the torrential flow of arms and equipment from the US), it was decided that some of the wind needed to be taken out of his sails. What better, more impressive way to do it than to remove an entire city from his path. (Somewhat ironically however, when knowledge of the atrocity had incensed people world-wide, Stalin was adamant that he’d never asked for this. Likewise, Churchill was beginning to try to distance himself from the obscenity, leaving Harris out to dry, as the saying goes.)

 

As efficiently and as scientifically as ever, Bomber Harris, in conjunction with US Army Air Force, prepared for his latest assignment. The attack would comprise a triple blow, the first two at night, and closely spaced — the better to catch rescuers and fire brigades out in the open with the second — and a daylight attack the following day by US Flying Fortresses capable of carrying even greater bombloads than the British Lancasters. It would be a stroll in the park.

 

 

Luftwaffe pilots were fighting desperately elsewhere, or they were kept on an airfield nearby because destroyed communications meant permission for take-off could not be obtained from Flight HQ. And with the feared 88 mm flak cannon removed elsewhere because it was considered unneeded at Dresden, the city was as defenseless as a man without limbs. The three swarms of attackers would comprise a staggering numbers of bombers, a strategy that had become the norm. The amount of explosives dropped on Dresden would total almost 35 thousand tons. Bombs as various as clubs in a golf-bag would be used, including the two- and four-ton ‘blockbusters’, so named because they could take out entire city blocks, time-bombs to catch the unwary after the bombers had turned homewards, and deep-burrowing bombs to find those hard to reach spots where victims would have been trembling uncontrollably underground. Of primary importance though were the thousands of incendiaries that would be used to deliberately replicate the firestorm of Hamburg. The phosphorous of the incendiaries, had a way of sticking to people, turning them into human torches.

 

And so it began. With sirens blaring and the city’s inhabitants descending into makeshift, cellar shelters that would prove to be eventual death traps, what had become known the length and breadth of Germany as ‘Christmas tree lights’ began falling from the sky. These were the magnesium marker flares dropped by a squadron of Pathfinder Lancasters.  Then the hellish incendiaries began falling. With fires lighting up the city, it was then a simple matter to follow up with earth-quaking explosions.  A short time later a bomber crew member reported what he estimated to be ‘forty square miles of fire’. Another wondered what it must have been like for “the poor sods below.”

 

Down below, the most fearful artistic imaginings of hell did not come close to what was actually happening. The lucky ones were being asphyxiated because of oxygen being consumed by fire or the buildup of carbon monoxide in basement shelters. The not so lucky caught out in the open were being picked up like rag dolls and flung into the flames by cyclonic winds or having clothes, then skin, then flesh burnt from them as they ran before dropping. Others became bogged in melted bitumen where their bodies would be later found face down and have to be pried away from the once again solidified blackness. Many women still clutching babies or infants would be found like this. The melting point of glass is around 1,600 degrees centigrade.           Shattered window panes began to melt. Sandstone melted and ran like lava.

 

The main railway station had become a city within a city with refugees, wounded soldiers and POWs constantly arriving by train and being crowded also with people having nowhere else to go. Because of its large underground area forming a de facto shelter — no proper public air-raid shelters existed in the city — it acted as a magnet for the panic stricken as soon as the first bombs began falling. It proved however to be of little protection against the many direct hits that peppered it. The first to die of course were those still huddled in crowded train carriages, and then death tried more determinedly to find those so desperately trying to escape it.  From this location alone, many thousands of bodies were recovered in the following days. As across the entire city, many more would never be found. However, the rail line running through the station, arguably a genuine military target, would be repaired, allowing trains to be running again within days.

 

As bombers of the second wave finally headed for home, fire reaching high into the atmosphere could still be seen 100 miles behind. The more sensitive of the bomber crewmen were beginning to feel shame that would stay with them the rest of their lives.

 

 

But for the Dresdeners who had escaped the inferno and were now shivering in the frigid cold, it wasn’t over yet. The new day brought a new attack. It was now time for the US force — of similar magnitude to the preceding British waves — to launch its daring daylight attack, daring that is, if those who could see it coming could have done anything about it. But they could only watch. The still roiling clouds of smoke did however a degree of difficulty. But no need to be too finicky about where the bombs landed; they would more than likely be only smashing rubble anyway. For mopping up, P51s streaked down low from the sky to strafe burnt and bleeding survivors huddled in the parks and on the banks of the Elbe with cannon and machine gun fire. One American pilot, possibly annoyed with a low score swept over what remained of the zoo. Most of the animals had been killed or had escaped but a lone giraffe remained wandering and dazed.  A burst of machine gun fire from the Mustang riddled the giraffe and dropped it to the ground. Such was the heroism displayed on that day.

 

Irving gives the figure of 135,000 for the dead left lying in and under the smoking rubble of Dresden. To do this, he simply followed his modus operandi of researching primary sources. In this case, it was the record compiled by Hans Voigt, a teacher unemployed because Dresden schools had been recently converted into military hospitals. By order of the Vermissten-Nachweis-Zentrale (Central Bureau of Missing Persons) he was tasked with setting up and organizing an Arbteilung Tote (Dead Persons Department). This would ultimately be the most enormous enterprise of its kind in history. With typical Teutonic efficiency he assembled a crew of seventy. This was backed up by a further 300 from the VNZ. The system worked out was a kind of complex double entry ledger whereby bodies were head counted by one team and tagged by another, the two totals then being cross-checked.

 

The first major accomplishment was the identification of around 40,000 bodies via identifying documents and valuables. But that was where the total of identified bodies remained.  From there on, the teams were often counting three feet long, charcoal human effigies. All the while the counters were interrupted by the bereaved wanting to take either identified bodies or bodies thought to be relatives in order save them from the mass graves. They were forbidden to do so. Time was not on the side of the counters. Working in a miasma of reeking death, the outbreak of disease was becoming an increasingly dangerous probability. When it became too great, burial was abandoned, and as soon as bodies were counted, they were stacked on grills of iron girders and set on fire in the streets. A scene in the film Slaughterhouse-Five, based on the book by Kurt Vonnegut who was one of the many POWs assisting in rescue operations, shows a POW being shot for picking up from the rubble a Dresden doll. Summary execution was in fact the fate of anyone even suspected of looting.

 

Where no actual bodies could be identified, such as when a cellar was opened and what had been the people cowering inside had become layers of fine ash, educated guessing and inductive reasoning was the only recourse.   A similar problem attached to a scene described by Voigt and related by Irving: “The bottom steps were slippery. The cellar floor was covered by an eleven- or twelve-inch deep liquid mixture of blood, flesh, and bone; a small high explosive bomb had penetrated four floors of the building and exploded in the basement.” The number of bodies contributing to the nightmarish mixture was easily ascertainable, however; it was discovered that at every previous air raid alert, although not followed by an air raid, the cellar usually contained around 300 people.

 

Not a word of all this however is contained within the Panometer. I exit the building so distracted I hardly notice the chemtrails painted across a cloudless sky. Back at my hotel, I obtained a city map and began to take note of the suggestions of places of interest crowded in its fringes. Curiously, the Panometer isn’t included, but in a small section entitled “5 min of history” I notice this: “13th February 1945 — the Old Town was almost completely destroyed [almost?. The city had been cored like an apple with ten square miles totally destroyed] and thousands of people died [at least here is an acknowledgement that people actually died] … However, we should also not forget that many Dresdeners … participated willingly in the Nazi regime. [italics mine].” I go over this part again to check that I haven’t misread it. But no, that’s what it says. So those tens of thousands of souls that were destroyed so terribly were simply getting what they deserved. They had been infected with National Socialism so it was only right that they were burnt out like a cancer. But these are the writer’s own people he’s speaking of — ancestors, who in many cultures are worthy of respect and reverence, even worship. How can they be disowned so simply, so brutally? On further reflection, the answer — one of desperate but futile psychological processing — crystallizes. If the bloodline can be severed, so can the blood guilt.  If that doesn’t work, which it doesn’t, there’s a fallback, and that is a common German sentiment expressed as “we’re proud of not being proud.”

 

This lack of pride is truly astounding. While all over Germany little brass plaques set into foot-paths outside the homes once inhabited by Jews reminds Germans of their guilt (the most common word in the details of their fate being ‘emordet’ [murdered] and a lavish Holocaust museum stands accusingly in the center of their capital city), not one stone exists in memoriam of the millions of Germans who perished — and in the case of Dresden and every other city that was carpet-bombed, emordet — in the Second World War and for several years afterwards. (For the full horror, Goodrich’s Hellstorm is required reading.) Because of suppressed knowledge, it’s unlikely that the millions of German POWs, robbed of that status, and perishing in Eisenhower’s death camps are even mentioned. While the landscapes of the victors are dotted with war memorials you will find no such tribute to the vast number of German men, and in the end, boys, who fought with superhuman bravery and gave their lives for their people and nation. It doesn’t matter that, in the end, ragged and starving, they fought to the last bullet simply for each other and to protect their people fleeing an unimaginably bestial horde being urged on by Comrade Ehrenburg: “break the racial pride of these German women” and “kill, kill, kill!” There is however a war memorial in the Harz Mountains town of Bad Harzburg. It commemorates the soldiers who fought and died in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870–71. This is the last war about which Germans have a right to express pride.

 

The sad irony is that however much Germans try to dissociate themselves from their ancestors, it is all to no avail. Even the cartoon renditions of a blood-dripping Adolph Hitler with which the German left likes to amuse themselves will not save them. This is evidenced by the ongoing need to atone, most graphically illustrated by Frau Merkel’s launching  of the refugee crisis and the deadly virus of Islam. To certain others, German guilt is far too valuable to ever let expire. Germans will forever remain “Hitler’s willing executioners.” The miracle is that, through some kind of mental alchemy, what should have been venomous, undying hatred because of what was done to them, has been turned into everlasting guilt.

 


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APOCALYPSE AT DRESDEN

by R. H. S. Crossman     (Esquire Magazine - November 1963)

The long suppressed story of the worst massacre in the history of the world.

If the British Commonwealth and the United States last a thousand years, men may say that this was their darkest hour.

Were all the crimes against humanity committed during World War II the work of Hitler's underlings? That was certainly the impression created by the fact that only Germans were brought to trial at Nüremburg. Alas! It is a false impression. We all now know that in the terrible struggle waged between the Red Army and the German Wehrmacht, the Russians displayed their fair share of insensate inhumanity. What is less widely recognized -- because the truth, until only recently, has been deliberately suppressed -- is that the Western democracies were responsible for the most senseless single act of mass murder committed in the whole course of World War II.

The devastation of Dresden in February, 1945, was one of those crimes against humanity whose authors would have been arraigned at Nüremburg if that Court had not been perverted into the instrument of Allied justice. Whether measured in terms of material destruction or by loss of human life, this "conventional" air raid was far more devastating than either of the two atomic raids against Japan that were to follow it a few months later. Out of 28,410 houses in the inner city of Dresden, 24,866 were destroyed; and the area of total destruction extended over eleven square miles.

As for the death roll, the population, as we shall see, had been well nigh doubled by a last-minute influx of refugees flying before the Red Army; and even the German authorities -- usually so pedantic in their estimates -- gave up trying to work out the precise total after some 35,000 bodies had been recognized, labeled and buried. We do know, however, that the 1,250,000 people in the city on the night of the raid had been reduced to 368,619 by the time it was over; and it seems certain that the death roll must have greatly exceeded the 71,879 at Hiroshima. Indeed, the German authorities were probably correct who, a few days after the attack, put the total somewhere between 120,000 and 150,000.

How was this horror permitted to happen? Was it a deliberate and considered act of policy, or was it the result of one of those ghastly misunderstandings or miscalculations that sometimes occur in the heat of battle? There are many who will say that these are academic questions belonging to history. I do not agree. Of course, what happened at Dresden belongs to the prenuclear epoch. But it has a terrible relevance to the defense strategy which the Western democracies are operating today. If the crime of Dresden is not to be repeated on a vaster scale, we must find out why it was committed. That, at least, has been my feeling, and there are two special reasons which have prompted me to go on investigating the facts for so many years. In the first place, I was myself involved in a quite minor capacity in the decisions which preceded it. When the Germans overran France in 1940 and the Chamberlain Government in London was replaced by the Churchill Government, there was a purge in Whitehall. Unexpectedly I found myself recruited to a secret department attached to the Foreign Office, with the title "Director of Psychological Warfare against Germany." My main task was to plan the overt and subvert propaganda which we hoped would rouse occupied Europe against Hitler. But I soon found myself caught up in a bitter top-secret controversy about the role of bomber offensive in the breaking of German morale.

The Prime Minister was haunted by fears that the bloodletting of the Somme and Passchendaele in World War I would have to be repeated if we tried to defeat Hitler by landing and liberating Europe. So the Air Marshals found it easy to persuade him that if they were given a free hand they could make these casualties unnecessary by smashing the German home front into submission. What Hitler wreaked against London and Coventry, our bombers would repay a thousandfold, until the inhabitants of Berlin, Hamburg and every other city in Germany had been systematically "de-housed" and pulverized into surrender. To achieve this, the Air Marshals demanded that top priority in war production should be given not to preparations for the second front, but to the construction of huge numbers of four-engined night bombers.

Eagerly Sir Winston Churchill accepted their advice, with the backing of his whole Cabinet. The only warning voices raised were those of a number of very influential scientists who, by means of careful calculations, threw serious doubt on the physical possibility of wreaking the degree of destruction required. Their mathematical arguments were reinforced by the studies we psychological warriors had made of British morale in the blitz. Assuming, wisely as it worked out, that the German people would behave under air attack at least as bravely as the British people, we demonstrated that the scale of frightfulness our bombers could employ against German cities would almost certainly strengthen civilian morale, and go stimulate the war production that it was intended to weaken.

Early in 1941, these arguments were finally swept aside, and Britain was completely committed to the bomber offensive. By the time it reached its first climax in the raid on Hamburg, however, I had been transferred to Eisenhower's staff. I was happy, first in North Africa and then in SHAEF, to work with an Anglo-American staff who did not trouble to conceal how much they detested the hysterical mania for destruction and the cold-blooded delight in pounding the German home front to pieces displayed by the big-bomb boys. Indeed, one of my pleasantest memories is the attitude General Walter Bedell Smith displayed a few weeks after the Dresden raid. Sir Winston had accused "Ike" of being soft to the German civilians and ordered him to use terror tactics in order to panic them out of their homes and onto the roads, and so to block the German retreat. No one contradicted Sir Winston, but as soon as his back was turned, we were instructed to work out a directive that would prevent him getting his way.

On V.E. Day, when I flew back to Britain in order to stand as a Labour Candidate in Coventry, I assumed with relief that my concern with bombing was over. But I was wrong. Within years, Coventry -- the main victim of the Luftwaffe -- had "twinned" itself with Dresden, the main victim of the R.A.F. And when Germany was divided and it became difficult for Westerners to go behind the Iron Curtain, I had a standing invitation to visit Dresden as the guest of its Lord Mayor. I have done so frequently, and on each occasion I have tried to match the inside experience of bombing strategy I acquired during the war with firsthand information from its victims "on the other side of the hill." I have also checked the published accounts of the destruction of Dresden available in Western and Eastern Germany, against the official History of the Strategic Bombing Offensive published only two years ago in Britain. These researches have left me in no doubt whatever how Dresden was destroyed, why it was destroyed, and what lessons we must draw from its destruction.

The prelude to the bombing of Dresden was sounded by the Russian communique of January 12, 1945, which announced that the Red Army had resumed its offensive all along the front, and was advancing into Prussia and Silesia. This news could hardly have been more embarrassing, either to General Dwight D. Eisenhower whose armies were still recovering from the humiliating effects of General Karl von Rundstedt's Christmas offensive in the Ardennes, or to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill who were now preparing for the Yalta Conference due to start on February 4. Since the post war settlement was bound to be discussed with Josef Stalin in terms not of principle but of pure politics, Sir Winston felt that the impression created by the Red Army's occupation of Eastern Europe and advance deep into Germany must somehow be countered. But how? The obvious answer was by a demonstration right up against the Red Army of Western air power. What was required, he decided, was a thunderclap of Anglo-American aerial annihilation so frightful in the destruction it wreaked that even Stalin would be impressed.

January 25 was the day when the decision was taken that resulted in the blotting out of Dresden. Until then, the capital of Saxony had been considered so famous a cultural monument and so futile a military target that even the Commander in Chief of Bombing Command, Air Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, had given it hardly a thought. All its flak batteries had been removed for use on the Eastern front; and the Dresden authorities had taken none of the precautions, either in the strengthening of air-raid shelters, or in the provision of concrete bunkers that had so startlingly reduced casualties in other German cities subjected to Allied attack. Instead, they had encouraged rumors that it would be spared either because Churchill had a niece living there, or else because it was reserved by the Allies as their main occupation quarters. These rumors were strengthened by the knowledge that no less than some 26,000 Allied prisoners were quartered in and around the city, and that its population had doubled to well over a million in recent weeks by streams of refugees from the East.

All this Sir Winston knew on January 26. But early on that winter morning he had learned that the Russian Army had crossed the Oder at Breslav and was now only sixty miles from Dresden. Angrily he rang up Sir Archibald Sinclair, his Secretary of State for Air, and asked him what plans he had for "basting the Germans -- in their retreat from Breslav." Sir Archibald, whose main function it had been to protect Bomber Command from public criticism by a series of lying assurances that scrupulous care was taken to bomb only military targets, remained true to type. He prevaricated over the phone and next day replied that in the view of the Air Staff "intervention in winter weather at very long range over Eastern Germany would be difficult." To this the Premier replied with a memorandum so offensive in its controlled fury that the Minister and the Air Staff, never noted for their moral courage, were stampeded into action. At once, orders were given to concert with the American Eighth Air Force a plan for wiping out Leipzig, Chemnitz and Dresden.

Sir Winston and his staff left for Yalta, where it became only too clear that the Premier's forebodings were justified. Strengthened by his victories, Stalin pressed his political demands upon a President now weakened and very near his death, and a Prime Minister isolated and ill at ease. When suggestions were made that the Western bombing should be used to help the Red Army advance, the Russian generals were chilly and unresponsive. Nevertheless, Sir Arthur Harris had already selected Dresden, now only sixty miles from the front, for destruction. And day by day, Sir Winston hoped that he would be able to impress Stalin with the demonstration of what Allied air power could achieve so near the Russian allies. But the weather was against him. The conference broke up on the eleventh, and it was only three days later -- long after the conference when it could no longer have any effect on the negotiations -- that the R.A.F.'s spokesman in London proudly announced the destruction of Dresden.

We must now turn back and see what the airmen had been planning. Sir Arthur Harris was quick to seize the opportunity presented by the Prime Minister's insistence that Bomber Command must make its presence felt in Eastern Germany. Since 1941, by a slow process of trial and error which had cost him many thousands of air crews, he had perfected his new technique of "saturation precision bombardment." First, daylight operations over Germany had been discarded as too costly; then, with raiding confined to nighttime target bombing, after a long period of quite imaginary successes, had been abandoned as too wildly inaccurate. The decision was taken to set each city center on fire and destroy the residential areas, sector by sector.

In this new kind of incendiary attack, highly trained special crews were sent ahead to delineate a clearly defined target area with marker flares, nicknamed by the Germans "Christmas trees." When this had been done, all that remained for the rest of the bomber forces was to lay its bomb carpet so thickly that the defense, the A.R.P., the police, and the fire services would all be overwhelmed.

This fire-raising technique was first used with complete success in the great raid on Hamburg. Thousands of individual fires conglomerated into a single blaze, creating the famous "fire-storms" effect, first described by the Police President of the city in a secret report to Hitler that soon fell into Allied hands:

"As the result of the confluence of a number of fires, the air above is heated to such an extent that in consequence of its reduced specific gravity, a violent updraft occurs which causes great suction of the surrounding air radiating from the center of the fire... The suction of the fire storm in the larger of these area fire zones has the effect of attracting the already overheated air in smaller area fire zones... One effect of this phenomenon was that the fire in the smaller area fire zones was fanned as by a bellows as the central suction of the biggest and fiercest fires caused increased and accelerated attraction of the surrounding masses of fresh air. In this way all the area fires became united in one vast fire."

The Hamburg fire storm probably killed some 40,000 people: three-quarters by carbon-monoxide poisoning as a result of the oxygen being sucked out of the air; the rest by asphyxiation.

As soon as he heard that permission had been given to destroy Dresden, Air Marshal Harris decided to achieve this by a deliberately created fire storm, and to increase the effect he persuaded the Americans to split the available bombers into three groups. The task of the first wave was to create the fire storm. Three hours later, a second and much heavier night force of British bombers was timed to arrive when the German fighter and flak defenses would be off guard, and the rescue squads on their way. Its task was to spread the fire storm. Finally, the next morning, a daylight attack by the Eighth Air Force was to concentrate on the outlying areas, the new city.

Two-pronged attacks had been successfully carried out during 1944 against a number of German towns. The three-pronged attack employed at Dresden was unique and uniquely successful. The first wave, consisting of some two hundred fifty night bombers, arrived precisely on time and duly created a fire storm. The second force -- more than twice as strong and carrying an enormous load of incendiaries -- also reached the target punctually, and, undisturbed by flak or night fighters, spent thirty-four minutes carefully spreading the fires outside the first target area. Finally, to complete the devastation, some two hundred eleven Flying Fortresses began the third attack at 11:30 a.m. on the following morning. Without exaggeration, the commanders could claim that the Dresden raid had "gone according to plan." Everything which happened in the stricken city had been foreseen and planned with meticulous care.

So far, we have been looking at the Dresden raid from "our own side of the hill" -- considering the point of view of Mr. Churchill, concerned to create the best impression possible on Stalin at the Yalta Conference, and of Air Marshal Harris, eager to demonstrate the technique for creating a fire storm. But what was the impact on the Dresdeners? Inevitably the raid has created its own folklore. Thousands of those who survived it now live in Western Germany, each with his own memory to retail to the visitor. In Dresden itself, the city fathers have now established an official Communist version, of which the main purpose clearly is to put the main blame on the "American imperialists" (we are solemnly told, for instance, that the R.A.F. was directed to special targets in the city by an American capitalist whose villa on the far side of the Elbe is now a luxury club for favored Communist artists). Nevertheless, anyone who bothers to read the books published in both Germanies and to compare the stories he hears from Communist and anti-Communist witnesses soon discovers that not only the outline of events but the details of the main episodes are agreed beyond dispute.

Dresden is one of those German cities which normally devotes Shrove Tuesday to Carnival festivities. But on February 13, 1945, with the Red Army sixty miles away, the mood was somber. The refugees, who were crowded into every house, each had his horror story about Russian atrocities. In many parts of the city, and particularly around the railway station, thousands of latecomers who could find no corner in which to sleep were camping in the bitter cold of the open streets. The only signs of Carnival spirit, when the sirens sounded at 9:55 p.m., were the full house at the circus and a few gangs of little girls wandering about in fancy dress. Though no one took the danger of a raid very seriously, orders must be obeyed and the population just had time to get down to its shelters before the first bombs fell at nine minutes past the hour.

Twenty-four minutes later, the last British bomber was on its way back to England, and the inner city of Dresden was ablaze. Since there were no steel structures in any of its apartment houses, the floors quickly capsized, and half an hour after the raid was over the fire storm transformed thousands of individual blazes into a sea of flames, ripping off the roofs, tossing trees, cars and lorries into the air, and simultaneously sucking the oxygen out of the air-raid shelters.

Most of those who remained below ground were to die painlessly, their bodies first brilliantly tinted bright orange and blue, and then, as the heat grew intense, either totally incinerated or melted into a thick liquid sometimes three or four feet deep. But there were others who, when the bombing stopped, rushed upstairs. Some of them stopped to collect their belongings before escaping, and they were caught by the second raid. But some 10,000 fled to the great open space of the Grosse Garten, the magnificent royal park of Dresden, nearly one and a half square miles in all.
Here they were caught by the second raid, which started without an air-raid warning, at 1:22 a.m. Far heavier than the first -- there were twice as many bombers with a far heavier load of incendiaries -- its target markers had been deliberately placed in order to spread the fires into the black rectangle which was all the airmen could see of the Grosse Garten. Within minutes the fire storm was raging across the grass, ripping up some trees and littering the branches of others with clothes, bicycles and dismembered limbs that remained hanging for days afterward.

Equally terrible was the carnage in the great square outside the main railway station. Here, the thousands camping out had been reinforced by other thousands escaping from the inner city, while within the station a dozen trains, when the first sirens blew, had been shunted to the marshaling yards and escaped all damage. After the first raid stopped, these trains were shunted back to the station platforms -- just in time to receive the full force of the bombardment. For weeks, mangled bodies were littered inside and outside the station building. Below ground, the scene was even more macabre. The restaurants, cellars and tunnels could easily have been turned into effective bombproof shelters. The authorities had not bothered to do so, and of the two thousand crowded in the dark, one hundred were burned alive and five hundred asphyxiated before the doors could be opened and the survivors pulled out.

The timing of the second raid, just three hours after the first, not only insured that the few night fighters in the area were off their guard, but it also created the chaos intended and effectively interrupted all rescue work. For many miles around, military detachments, rescue squads and fire brigades started on their way to the stricken city, and most of them were making their way through the suburbs when the bombs began to fall. Those who turned back were soon swallowed up in the mad rush of panic evacuation. Most of those who proceeded toward the center perished in the fire storm.

The most terrible scenes in the inner city took place in the magnificent old market square, the Altmarkt. Soon after the first raid finished, this great square was jam-packed with panting survivors. When the second raid struck, they could scarcely move until someone remembered the huge concrete emergency water tank that had been constructed to one side. This tank was a hundred by fifty yards by six feet deep. There was a sudden stampede to escape the heat of the fire storm by plunging into it. Those who did so forgot that its sloping sides were slippery, with no handholds. The nonswimmers sank to the bottom, dragging the swimmers with them. When the rescuers reached the Altmarkt five days later, they found the tank filled with bloated corpses, while the rest of the square was littered with recumbent or seated figures so shrunk by the incineration that thirty of them could be taken away in a single bathtub.

But perhaps the most memorable horror of this second raid occurred in the hospitals. In the last year of the war, Dresden had become a hospital city, with many of its schools converted into temporary wards. Of its nineteen hospitals, sixteen were badly damaged and three, including the main maternity clinic, totally destroyed. Thousands of crippled survivors were dragged by their nurses to the banks of the River Elbe, where they were laid in rows on the grass to wait for the daylight. But when it came, there was another horror. Punctually at 11:30 a.m., the third wave of bombers, the two hundred eleven American Flying Fortresses, began their attack. Once again, the area of destruction was extended across the city. But what the survivors all remember were the scores of Mustang fighters diving low over the bodies huddled on the banks of the Elbe, as well as on the larger lawns of the Grosse Garten, in order to shoot them up. Other Mustangs chose as their targets the serried crowds that blocked every road out of Dresden. No one knows how many women and children were actually killed by those dive-bombing attacks. But in the legend of Dresden destruction, they have become the symbol of Yankee sadism and brutality, and the inquirer is never permitted to forget that many choirboys of one of Dresden's most famous churches were among the victims.

For five days and nights, the city burned and no attempt was made to enter it. Then at last the authorities began to grapple with the crisis and to estimate the damage. Of Dresden's five theatres, all had gone. Of her fifty-four churches, nine were totally destroyed and thirty-eight seriously damaged. Of her one hundred thirty-nine schools, sixty-nine ceased to exist and fifty were badly hit. The great zoo which lay just beyond the Grosse Garten had been struck in the second raid, and the panicked animals had mingled with the desperate survivors. Now they were rounded up and shot. Those who escaped from the prisons, when they too were blown up, had better fortune: they all managed to get away, including a number of brave anti-Nazis.

But some things had survived destruction. The few factories Dresden possessed were outside the city center, and soon were at work again. So too was the railway system. Within three days, indeed, military trains were running once again right through the city, and the marshaling yards -- untouched by a bomb -- were in full operation. It was as though an ironical fate had decided that the first fire storm deliberately created by mortal man should destroy everything worth preserving, and leave untouched anything of military value.

In their salvage work, the Nazis relied on some 25,000 Allied prisoners of war, concentrated in and around the city. Dresden, as was known very well in London and Washington, was not only a hospital city but a prisoner-of-war city -- still another reason why the authorities assumed it would not be attacked. Faced with the appalling scenes of suffering, the prisoners seemed to have worked with a will, even after some of their fellow-prisoners had been shot under martial law for looting.

What Dresdeners chiefly remember, of these first days after the raid, is the disposal of the bodies. Throughout the war, German local authorities had been extremely careful to show great respect for death, enabling relatives wherever possible to identify and to bury their own dead. At first, this procedure was followed in Dresden. But weeks after the raid there were still thousands of unopened cellars under the smoldering ruins, and the air was thick with the fog and sweet stench of rotting flesh. An S.S. commander made the decision that the daily procession of horse-drawn biers from the city to the cemeteries outside must be stopped. If plague was to be prevented, the rest of the corpses must be disposed of more speedily. Hurriedly, a monstrous funeral pyre was constructed in the Altmarkt. Steel shutters from one of Dresden's biggest department stores were laid across broken slabs of ironstone. On this macabre gridiron, the bodies were piled with straw between each layer, soaked with gasoline and set ablaze. Nine thousand corpses were disposed of in this way, and eight cubic meters of ash were then loaded into gasoline containers and buried in a graveyard outside the city, twenty-five feet wide and fifteen feet deep.

If it was expected in either London or Washington that the destruction of Dresden, despite its negligible military significance, would at least shatter German morale, this hope was soon to be disappointed -- thanks to Paul Joseph Goebbels' skillful exploitation of the disaster. For days, the Propaganda Ministry in Berlin poured out, both in its foreign and in its home services, a stream of eyewitness accounts of the stricken city, backed up by moralistic attacks on the cold-blooded sadism of the men who created the fire storm. In his secret propaganda, Dr. Goebbels did even better by leaking to the neutral press a fictitious top-secret estimate that the casualties had probably reached 260,000. As a result of this Nazi propaganda campaign, the German people were convinced that the Anglo-American forces were indeed bent on their destruction. And their morale was once again stiffened by terror of defeat.

Disturbed by the success of Dr. Goebbels' propaganda, the airmen decided to call a press conference on February 16 at SHAEF. As a result of the briefing, given by a British Air Commodore, Associated Press cabled a special dispatch all over the world, announcing "the long-awaited decision to adopt deliberate terror bombings of German population centers as a ruthless expedient of hastening Hitler's doom." The correspondents added that the Dresden attack was "for the avowed purpose of heaping more confusion on Nazi road and rail traffic, and to sap German morale."

When this dispatch reached London, it was immediately censored on the ground that officially the R.A.F. only bombed military targets, and the attribution to it of terror raids was a vicious piece of Nazi propaganda. In the United States, where the dispatch was widely publicized, the embarrassment caused to the Administration was acute, since the Air Force spokesmen had seldom failed to point out the difference between the indiscriminate R.A.F. night attacks and the selective and precise nature of the daylight bombing carried out by the Eighth Air Force.

In order to stop awkward questions, General George C. Marshall then gave a public assurance that the bombing on Dresden had taken place at Russian request. Although no evidence was produced either then or since for the truth of this statement, it was accepted uncritically and has since found its way into a number of official American histories.

But suppression was not sufficient to stem the rising wave of public protest. Coming as it did when the war was virtually over, the wanton destruction of the Florence of the North and the mass murder of so many of its inhabitants was too much, even for a world public opinion fed for years on strident war propaganda. The publication of a lengthy report by a Swedish correspondent caused a revulsion of feeling.

Within a few weeks, this revulsion against indiscriminate bombing had affected even Sir Winston Churchill. Up till now, the critics in the British Parliament of area bombing had been a small derided minority. Suddenly, their influence began to grow, and on March 28, Sir Winston in response to this new mood, wrote to the Chief of the Air Staff, beginning with the remarkable words:

"It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed."

Since the Premier had taken the lead in demanding the switch from target to area bombing and had actively encouraged each new advance proposed by Air Marshal Harris in the technique of air obliteration, this memorandum could hardly have been less felicitously phrased. It provided damning evidence that so long as terror bombing was popular, the politicians would take credit for it; but now that public opinion was revolting against its senseless brutality, they were only too obviously running for cover and leaving the air force to take the blame.

So outraged was the Chief of the Air Staff that on this occasion he stood up to Sir Winston, forcing him to withdraw the memorandum, and to substitute for it what the official historians -- who narrate this incident in full -- have described as "a somewhat more discreetly and fairly worded document."

But in Britain at least the damage had already been done. From that moment, Bomber Command, which for years had been the object of adulation, became increasingly discredited, and the nickname of its Commander in Chief changed from "Bomber" Harris to "Butcher" Harris. Although the bomber crews, suffered far the heaviest casualties of any of the British armed services, no campaign medal was struck to distinguish their part in winning the war. In his victory broadcast of May 13, 1945, Sir Winston omitted any tribute to them, and after the Labour Government came to power, Earl Attlee was just as vindictive. In January, 1946, he omitted their Commander in Chief from his victory honors list. Sir Arthur Harris accepted the insult loyally, and on February 13 sailed to exile in South Africa.

The Eighth Air Force was treated more gently, both by the politicians in Washington and by the American public. Its airmen received their share of campaign medals, and to this day it has never been officially admitted that by the end of the war they were bombing city centers and residential areas as wantonly by day as the R.A.F. was by night. There was, however, an important difference between the public image of the two Air Forces. The British Cabinet, having secretly decided to sanction indiscriminate terror bombing, concealed this decision from the British public and therefore compelled Bomber Command to operate under cover of a sustained and deliberate lie. In the case of the Eighth Air Force, self-deception took place of lying. Instead of doing one thing and saying another, the myth was maintained that on every mission the Flying Fortresses aimed exclusively at military targets, and this is still part of the official American legend of World War II. It was because it was impossible to square this legend with what had happened at Dresden that General Marshall had to excuse American protestation in that holocaust on the fictitious ground that the Russians had requested the attack.

I leave it to the reader to decide which form was more nauseating -- British lying or American self-deception. For what concerns me in this inquiry is not the public image of Anglo-American idealism that was shattered by the Dresden raid, but the crime against humanity which was perpetrated. That it was decided to bomb a city of no military value simply in order to impress Stalin. That a fire storm was deliberately created in order to kill as many people as possible, and that the survivors were machine-gunned as they lay helpless in the open -- all this has been established without a shadow of a doubt. What remains is to ask how decent, civilized politicians enthusiastically approved such mass murder and decent, civilized servicemen conscientiously carried it out.

The usual explanation -- or excuse -- is that strategic bombing was only adopted by the Western powers as a method of retaliation in a total war started by totalitarians. This is at best a half-truth. The Nazis and the Communists dabbled in terror raids on civilian targets. But they were old-fashioned and imperialist enough to hold that the aim of war is not to destroy the enemy, but to defeat his armies in the field, to occupy his country, and exploit its resources. That is why both Stalin and Hitler preferred to use their air power, not as a separate weapon of unlimited war, but as a tactical adjunct to conventional land and sea operations. In fact, the only nations which applied the theory of unlimited war really systematically were the two great Western democracies. Both created a gigantic strategic air force and carried out quite separate but eventually unsuccessful attempts to defeat Germany by aerial annihilation.

Yet, at first sight, terror bombing seems to me, as an Englishman, a form of warfare repugnant to our national temperament, and utterly unsuited to an island people, itself hopelessly vulnerable to indiscriminate air attack. And I suspect that most Americans also feel that it does not conform with the traditions of the American way of life.

Why then did both nations adopt it?

I believe that the motive which prompted us was a very characteristic Anglo-Saxon desire to defend ourselves without preparing for war to win the fruits of victory; without actual fighting, and (if this proved impossible) at least to keep casualties down to a minimum among our own soldiers. Not only do British and American fighting men demand a far higher standard of living than most of their enemies. Even more important, they insist that they should not be required to risk death in close combat if remote-control methods of destroying the enemy are available. That, I am sure, is the main reason why our politicians and generals felt morally justified in conducting a bomber offensive against Germany which culminated in the destruction of Dresden.

Once we see this, we are no longer surprised that, as soon as an atomic bomb had been perfected, President Truman decided, with the full approval of the British Prime Minister, to use it. In this way, he could finish off the Japanese without a landing that would have cost thousands of American lives!

The moral I draw from the terrible story of Dresden is that the atom bombs employed on Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not inaugurate a new epoch in the history of war. They merely provided a new method of achieving victory without the casualties involved in land fighting far more deadly and far more economical than the thousand-bomber raid of World War II. Here, our politicians and generals felt, was the ultimate weapon which would enable the democracies to disarm and to relax -- yet deter aggression.

Alas! Nearly twenty years of bitter experience have taught us that the world was not made safe for democracy either by the "conventional" fire storm created by the bombers in Dresden, or by the atomic fire storm of Hiroshima. Even in modern war, crime does not always pay!

 

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                                 DRESDEN AND THE HOLOCAUST DENIERS

 

 

Whenever the firebombing of Dresden comes up you can be certain of two reactions. 1) They started it. 2) It was in response to Coventry. If it wasn’t for a thoroughly corrupt media the facts would be better known.

 

ADMISSION OF BRITISH GUILT

“Because we were doubtful about the psychological effect of propagandist distortion of the truth that it was we who started the strategic bombing offensive, we have shrunk from giving our great decision of May 11, 1940, the publicity it deserves.” ~ Bombing Vindicated. J. M. Spaight, CB. CBE. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry. (Note the date was during what journalists described as the Bore War as the conflict was to all intents and purposes over; only Churchill was determined to widen the war).

 

Dresden

 

“We began to bomb objectives on the German mainland before the Germans began to bomb objectives on the British mainland.” ~ J. M. Spaight, CB. CBE. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry.

 

“The first ‘area’ air attack of the war was carried out by 134 British bombers on the German city of Mannheim, on the 16 December 1940.  The object of this attack, as Air Chief Marshall Peirse later explained, was, “To concentrate the maximum amount of damage in the centre of the town,” ~ The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany. (H. M Stationery Office, London, 1961).

 

 

THE VICTIM IS BLAMED

“Hitler only undertook the bombing of British civilian targets reluctantly three months after the RAF had commenced bombing German civilian targets.  Hitler would have been willing at any time to stop the slaughter. Adolf Hitler was genuinely anxious to reach with Britain an agreement confining the action of aircraft to battle zones.” ~ J. M Spaight, CB. CBE. Bombing Vindicated, p.47. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry.

 

Captain Sir. Basil Liddell Hart, eminent British war historian and strategist declared that through this strategy victory had been achieved “through practicing the most uncivilised means of warfare that the world had known since the Mongol invasions.” ~ The Evolution of Warfare. Baber & Faber, 1946, p.75.

 

 

BRITISH PRIME MINISTER APPALLED

It was absolutely contrary to international law. ~ Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. The British Government would never resort to the deliberate attack on women and children for the purposes of mere terrorism.”  ~ Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain before being ousted as Prime Minister.

 

 

ADOLF HITLER’S REVULSION

“The construction of bombing airplanes would soon be abandoned as superfluous and ineffective if bombing as such were branded as an illegal barbarity.  If through the Red Cross Convention, it definitely turned out possible to prevent the killing of a defenseless wounded man or prisoner, then it ought to be equally possible, by analogous convention, and finally to stop the bombing of equally defenseless civil populations.” ~ German Chancellor Adolf Hitler.

 

 

DRESDEN WAS A LEGITIMATE TARGET

This is an absurd lie: Dresden, an undefended city of no military importance was a turkey-shoot for RAF Bomber Command. However, in action elsewhere, Butcher Harris’s airborne killers lost 88,000 crew:

 

“The third and last phase of the British air offensive against Germany began in March 1942 with the adoption of the Lindemann Plan by the British War Cabinet, and continued with undiminished ferocity until the end of the war in May 1945.

 

The bombing during this period was not, as the Germans complained, indiscriminate.  On the contrary; it was concentrated on working class houses because, as Professor Lindemann maintained, a higher percentage of bloodshed per ton of explosives dropped could be expected from bombing houses built close together, rather than by bombing higher class houses surrounded by gardens.” ~ Advance to Barbarism, F. J. P Veale, British Author and Jurist.

 

“I am in full agreement (of terror bombing).  I am all for the bombing of working-class areas in German cities.  I am a Cromwellian, I believe in ‘slaying in the name of the Lord!”   ~ Sir. Archibald Sinclair, British RAF Secretary for Air (above)

 

 

AN EYE FOR AN EYE (COVENTRY)

The Luftwaffe bombing of the English city of Coventry is often cited when the justification for the bombing campaign is sought.  It has since been disclosed that the bombing of the city was deliberately set up as ‘a means to an end’.

 

Coventry lost 100 acres through bombing during the entire period of the war. By contrast, “In those terrible ten days of mid-1943, British bombers gutted more than six thousand acres of Hamburg.” ~ Martin Caidin.

 

Three hundred times as many people died in the German city of Hamburg during the ten-day blitz as died in Coventry during the entire course of the war so was hardly comparative.

 

 

THE COLLUSION OF MEDIA

It is one of the greatest triumphs of modern emotional engineering that, in spite of the plain facts of the case which could never be disguised or even materially distorted, the British public, throughout the Blitz Period (1940 – 1941), remained convinced that the entire responsibility for their sufferings it was undergoing rested on the German leaders.

 

Too high praise cannot, therefore, be lavished on the British emotional engineers (media and palace publishers) for the infinite skill with which the public mind was conditioned prior to and during a period of unparalleled strain.” ~ Advance to Barbarism, P. 168. Mitre Press, London. F. J. P Veale, British Jurist.

 

collage_Death of city
 

 

DRESDEN WAS AN ISOLATED INCIDENT

During World War 2 more bombs by weight were dropped on the city of Berlin than were released on the whole of Great Britain during the entire war.  All German towns and cities above 50,000 populations were from 50% to 80% destroyed.

 

The great city of Dresden dubbed the Florence of Northern Europe was incinerated with up to 300,000 civilians burned and buried in the ruins. Hamburg was destroyed and 70,000 civilians died in the most appalling circumstances whilst the ancient City of Cologne was turned into a moonscape.

 

German and European cities incinerated include Berlin, Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen, Dresden, Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Dusseldorf, Hanover, Bremen, Wuppertal, Vienna, Duisburg. Munich, Magdeburg, Leipzig, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Kiel, Gelsdenkirchen, Bochum, Aachen, Wurzburg, Darmstadt, Krefeld, Munster, Munchen Gladbach, Braunschweig, Ludwishafen, Remscheid, Pforzheim, Osnabruck, Mainz, Bielefeld, Gieben, Duren, Solingen, Wilhelmshaven, Karlsruhe, Oberhausen, Heilbronn, Augsburg, Hamm, Knittelfeld, Luneburg, Cuxhaven, Kulmback, Hagen, Saarbrucken, Freiburg, Graz, Koblenz, Ulm, Bonn, Bremerhaven, Wanne-Eickel, Worms, Lubeck, Schweinfurt, Kleve, Wiener Neustadt, Wiesbaden, Paderborn, Bocholt, Hanau, Hildesheim, Emden, Siegen, Pirmasons, Hale, Bayreuth, Kreuznach, Witten, Aschaffenburg, Kaiserlautern, Gladbeck, Dorsten, Innsbruck, Neumunster, Linz, Klagenfurt, Reutlingen, Recklinghausen, Reuel, Regensburg, Homberg, Elmshorn, Wetzel, Villach, Hamelin, Konigsberg, Moers, Passau, Solbad Hall I. T, Coburg, Attnang-Puchheim, Friedrichshafen, Frankfurt-Oder, Danzig, Bozen, Chemnitz, Rostock,  Schwerte, Plauen, Rome, Bad Kreuznach, Neapel, Genoa, Mailand, Turin.

 

collage_Witness -2

 

WORSE THAN HIROSHIMA, NAGASAKI, AND TOKYO FIRESTORMS “The fire and horror lasted ten full days.  This is what makes Hamburg, and the loss of some seventy thousand men, women and children stand out as the worst of the disasters visited upon civilization during the insanity of World War 2.” ~ Martin Caidin, prolific Writer, Scientist and Aeronautical Specialist.

 

IT IS RECOMMENDED that readers use this information to respond to media comments that exonerate or launder, lie and confuse about this vexed subject.

 

 

 

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                                    13 February 1945: Approximately 500,000 German Refugees Burned Alive by Allied Forces in Dresden

 

The professional liars who act on behalf of the official historiography of the Federal Republic of Germany shamelessly reduce the death toll of the Dresden holocaust by several hundreds of thousands.

 

On the other hand, nobody disputes that more than 12.000 houses in the center of the city were reduced to dust during the hellish firestorm. In view of the fact that, in addition to the 600.000 inhabitants of Dresden, another 600.000 people (refugees from Breslau) had found shelter in the overcrowded city, one can safely assume that each of these 12.000 houses contained no fewer than 50 people.

 

But of these houses virtually nothing remained, and the people who had been dwelling in them were transformed into ashes due to a heat of 1600 degrees Celsius. The deniers of the German Holocaust brazenly claim that only 35.000 persons perished in Dresden. Considering that a superficies of 7 x 4 kilometers, to wit 28 square kilometers, was completely destroyed, this "politically correct” figure would imply that less than 1, 5 persons died on each thousand square meters! In February 2005 a commission of "serious” historians further reduced this figure, claiming that only 24.000 Germans had been killed in Dresden. But anybody familiar with the character of the political system of Germany knows that these "serious historians” are nothing but vulgar falsifiers of history who are paid for preventing the breakthrough of the truth with more and more bare-faced lies.

 

The figure of 35.000 dead only represents the small part of the victims who could be fully identified. Erhard Mundra, a member of the "Bautzen committee” (an association of former political prisoners in the GDR), wrote in the daily newspaper Die Welt (12.2. 1995, page 8): "According to the former general staff officer of the military district of Dresden and retired lieutenant colonel of the Bundeswehr, D. Matthes, 35.000 victims were fully and another 50.000 partly identified, whereas further 168.000 could not be identified at all.” It goes without saying that the hapless children, women and old people whom the firestorm had transformed into a heap of ashes could not be identified either.

 

In 1955 former West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer stated: "On 13 February 1945, the attack on the city of Dresden, which was overcrowded with refugees, claimed about 250.000 victims.” (Deutschland heute, edited by the press and information service of the federal government, Wiesbaden 1955, page 154.)

 

In 1992, the city of Dresden gave the following answer to a citizen who had inquired about the death toll: "According to reliable information from the Dresden police, 202.040 dead, most of them women and children, were found until 20 March. Only about 30% of them could be identified. If we take into account those who are missing, a figure of 250.000 to 300.000 victims seems realistic.” (letter by Hitzscherlich, Sign: 0016/Mi, date: 31 - 7 - 1992.)

 

At the time of the attack, Dresden had no anti-aircraft guns and no military defense. It possessed no military industry at all. The city served as a shelter for refugees from the East. The roofs were marked with a red cross.

 

The German cities became huge crematoria

 

In that horrible night from 13 to 14 February 1945, the biggest war criminal of all time, Winston Churchill, had almost 700.000 incendiary bombs dropped on Dresden – in other words, one bomb for two inhabitants. On 3 March 1995, Die Welt commented this fact: "When the cities became crematoria… Professor Dietmar Hosser from the institute for construction material, massive construction and fire prevention deems it highly probable that the temperatures above ground reached up to 1600 degrees Celsius.”The deadly "liberation” came from the skies

 

The genocide of the German nation destroyed "80% of all German cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants”. The air forces of the Allied war criminals dropped "40.000 tons of bombs in 1942, 120.000 tons in 1943, 650.000 tons in 1944 and another 500.000 tons in the four last months of the war in 1945” (Die Welt, 11 February 1995, page G1).

 

The Germans did not begin the bombing war!

 

It should be reminded that Great Britain and France declared war on the German Reich on 3 September 1939, and that England began the terror bombing against the German civilian population as early as two days after its declaration of war. On 5 September 1939 the first raids took place against Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven; on 12 January 1940, Westerland/Sylt was bombed. Two weeks later, on 25 January, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht forbade air raids against Britain, including her ports, an exception being made for the docks of Rosyth. On 20 March, Kiel and Hörnum/Sylt were attacked with 110 explosive and incendiary bombs, which hit and destroyed a hospital. In April 1940, British bombers attacked further towns devoid of military importance. On 11 May 1940, one day after being named Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, Winston Churchill decided to order a massive air offensive against the German civilian population; however he did not inform his own people of his decision. On 18 May 1940, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht reported more meaningless British attacks on non-military aims and warned Britain of the consequences.

 

Not before 14/15 November 1940 did the Luftwaffe first attack a British city – Coventry with its important military industry. This happened several months after the start of the British terror bombing against civilian targets in Germany. The raid claimed about 600 victims.

 

Air-warfare expert Sönke Neitzel concludes: "Indisputably during the first years of the war all heavy attacks of the German Luftwaffe against cities were planned as military blows and cannot be defined as terror raids.” (Darmstädter Echo, 25 – 9 – 2004, p. 4)

 

Historians: "The British and American peoples share the burden of guilt for the genocide of the Germans”

 

In September 1988, military historians from five countries met at a conference in Freiburg. The event had been organized by the Institute for Military Research of the Bundeswehr. During a week, American, British, German, French and Italian specialist discussed various aspects of air warfare in the Second World War. After the conference, the daily newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine published a detailed and highly interesting article. Under the headline "Bombing the Cities”, the author, Professor Günter Gillessen, wrote: "It is a remarkable fact that the Wehrmacht stuck to the traditional principles of moderate warfare until the very end, whereas the two Western democracies resorted to a revolutionary, radical and reckless type of air warfare.” Another interesting conclusion the historians arrived at was the following: "It cannot be disputed that the principles of international law forbade total carpeting bombing … The historians considered the indiscriminate bombing as an abomination, but refused to lay the whole guilt on Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris or the Bomber Command. According to them, the entire staff of the RAF, but even more the political leaders, especially Churchill and Roosevelt, plus the majority of their peoples shared the burden of guilt.”

 

Churchill wanted to roast German refugees

 

On 13 February 1990, forty-five years after the destruction of Dresden, British historian David Irving spoke at the Dresden "Kulturpalast". In his speech, Irving quoted the war criminal Winston Churchill: "I don't want any suggestions how to destroy militarily important targets around Dresden. I want suggestions how blasting the Germans in their retreat from Breslau." (Minute by A.P.S. of S. - Air Chief Marshal Sir Wilfrid Freeman-  Jan 26, 1945 in "Air Historical Branch file CMS.608") But for Churchill, roasting the Germans was not enough. On the morning after the firebombing, he ordered his "Tiefflieger" (strafers, low-flying planes) to machine-gun the survivors on the beaches of the river Elbe.Churchill’s systematic war of extermination against the German people included plans for the destruction of every house in every German city. "’If it has to be, we hope to be able to destroy nearly every house in every German city.’… In March 1945 Churchill began to doubt the wisdom of bombing German cities ‘simply for the sake of increasing the terror’, but the terror continued.” (Die Welt, 11 February 2005, p. 27)

 

The German elite accuses the victims

 

Whereas the butcher Churchill actually felt some belated remorse for his war of extermination against the civilian population of Germany, the despicable German post-war elite awarded him the Karlspreis (Charlemagne prize) of Aachen. Churchill accepted this prize in Aachen, one of the countless cities his air-force had devastated, thereby burning alive countless human beings.

 

Since then, the elite of the German vassal state has not changed. They continue to praise the murderers and to revile the victims. On the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of the destruction of his city, the mayor of Dresden, Ingolf Rossberg, did not shrink from heaping abuse on the German holocaust victims; he practically justified the murder of hundreds of thousands (most of them women, children and wounded soldiers in the hospitals) plus the annihilation of irreplaceable cultural treasures: "60 years after the devastating bombing, which claimed tens of thousands of victims, mayor Ingolf Rossberg warned against misunderstanding Dresden as an ‘innocent city’.” (Die Welt, 12 February 2005, Internet version).

 

Thus spoke the mayor of a city which had received streams of people, animals and carriages like a caring mother. The streets and squares of Dresden were filled with refugees, the meadows and parks had been transformed into huge camps. When the fatal hour approached, about 1.130.000 people were living in Dresden. The result of the attacks was even more murderous than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

 

Only the German victims are guilty, not their murderers!

 

As American, British, German, French and Italian historians ascertained at the Freiburg conference in 1988, not only the main war criminals Churchill and Roosevelt bear the guilt for history’s worst atrocity. The majority of the British and the American population were not blameless either.

 

The German weekly Der Spiegel stated in its 1/1995 issue: "About six million Germans were killed." As a matter of fact, the actual figure was about fifteen million. But although even the anti-German Spiegel admits that six million Germans were put to death, the German elite only bemoans Jewish victims.

 

On 12 February 1995, Ernst Cramer wrote in Die Welt (page 12): "When commemorating the victims, we should stop asking about guilt.” And what had the politically super-correct former German president, Roman Herzog, to say about who was guilty of the German genocide? Speaking in Dresden on 13 February 1995, Herzog chose to insult the victims by stating: "It is meaningless to discuss if the bombing war, the inhumanity of which nobody disputes, was legally justified or not. What are such discussions good for, considering that fifty years have elapsed?” (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 14 February 1995, p. 1)

 

But when it comes to monstrously exaggerating the Auschwitz death toll (according to the well-known journalist Fritjof Meyer, three and a half million Auschwitz victims were simply invented in order to denigrate the German people) the professional hypocrites and liars never say: "It is meaningless to discuss this… What are such discussions good for, considering that so and so many years have elapsed?” As a matter of fact, all leading German politicians claim that Germany is guilty in all eternity. Even the unborn Germans are guilty!

 

Two measures

 

Let us resume: Not even the responsibles deny that the German cities were transformed into crematoria during World War Two. The total amounts of bombs dropped on the German cities has been confirmed by the criminals themselves and is therefore credible. That six million Germans were killed, was confirmed by the anti-German Spiegel and by official statistics, although the real figure is about 15 million. Nevertheless every liar under the sun apparently has the right to affirm that the allied terror bombings claimed only a handful of victims. These brazen falsifiers of history have nothing to fear from the German justice.

 

The biggest mass murder in history

 

The "democrats”, who claim to have "liberated” the German people from Hitler, brought nothing but terror and destruction. In Dresden, they murdered several hundreds of thousands people in one single hellish night and destroyed countless cultural treasures. Women who were giving birth to children in the delivery rooms of the burning hospitals jumped out of the windows, but within minutes, these mothers and their children, who were still hanging at the umbilical cords, were reduced to ashes too. Thousands of people whom the incendiary bombs had transformed into living torches jumped into the ponds, but phosphorus continues to burn even in the water. Even the animals from the zoo, elephants, lions and others, desperately headed for the water, together with the humans. But all of them, the new-born child, the mother, the old man, the wounded soldier and the innocent animal from the zoo and the stable, horribly perished in the name of "liberation".

 

 

Burned victims after the Dresden Massacre

This and similar pictures were often used after the war as fake photographic proof of Jewish gas victims.