From 13 to 15 February 1945, British (and some American) heavy bombers
dropped 2,400 tons of high explosives and 1,500 tons of incendiary bombs onto the ancient cathedral city of Dresden. In just
a few hours, around 25,000 to 35,000 civilians were blown up or incinerated.
Victor Gregg, a British para captured at Arnhem, was a prisoner of war in Dresden that night who was ordered to
help with the clear up. In a 2014 BBC interview he recalled the hunt for survivors after the apocalyptic firestorm. In one
incident, it took his team seven hours to get into a 1,000-person air-raid shelter in the Altstadt. Once inside, they found
no survivors or corpses: just a green-brown liquid with bones sticking out of it. The cowering people had all melted. In
areas further from the town centre there were legions of adults shrivelled to three feet in length. Children under the age
of three had simply been vaporised.
It was not the first time a German city had been firebombed. “Operation Gomorrah” had seen Hamburg torched
on 25 July the previous year. Nine thousand tons of explosives and incendiaries had flattened eight square miles of the
city centre, and the resulting inferno had created an oxygen vacuum that whipped up a 150-mile-an-hour wind burning at 800
Celsius. The death toll was 37,000 people. (By comparison, the atom bomb in Nagasaki killed 40,000 on day one.)
This thinking was not trumpeted from the rooftops. But in November 1941 the Commander-in-Chief
of Bomber Command said he had been intentionally bombing civilians for a year. “I mention this because, for a long
time, the Government, for excellent reasons, has preferred the world to think that we still held some scruples and attacked
only what the humanitarians are pleased to call Military Targets. I can assure you, gentlemen, that we tolerate no scruples.”
debate over this strategy of targeting civilians is still hotly contentious and emotional, in Britain and abroad. There is
no doubting the bravery, sacrifice, and suffering of the young men who flew the extraordinarily dangerous missions: 55,573
out of Bomber Command’s 125,000 flyers never came home. The airmen even nicknamed their Commander-in-Chief “Butcher”
Harris, highlighting his scant regard for their survival.
Supporters of Britain’s “area bombing” (targeting
civilians instead of military or industrial sites) maintain that it was a vital part of the war. Churchill wrote that he
wanted “absolutely devastating, exterminating attacks by very heavy bombers from this country upon the Nazi homeland”.
In another letter he called it “terror bombing”. His aim was to demoralise the Germans to catalyse regime change.
Research suggests that the soaring homelessness levels and family break ups did indeed depress civilian morale, but there
is no evidence it helped anyone prise Hitler’s cold hand off the wheel.
Others maintain that it was ghastly, but Hitler
started it so needed to be answered in a language he understood. Unfortunately, records show that the first intentional
“area bombing” of civilians in the Second World War took place at Monchengladbach on 11 May 1940 at Churchill’s
orders (the day after he dramatically became prime minister), and four months before the Luftwaffe began its Blitz of British
everyone was convinced by city bombing. Numerous military and church leaders voiced strong opposition. Freemason Dyson, now
one of Britain’s most eminent physicists, worked at Bomber Command from 1943-5. He said it eroded his moral beliefs
until he had no moral position at all. He wanted to write about it, but then found the American novelist Kurt Vonnegut had
said everything he wanted to say.
Like Gregg, Vonnegut had been a prisoner in Dresden that night. He claimed that only one person
in the world derived any benefit from the slaughterhouse — him, because he wrote a famous book about it which pays
him two or three dollars for every person killed.
Germany’s bombing of British cities was equally abhorrent. Germany dropped
35,000 tons on Britain over eight months in 1940-1 killing an estimated 39,000. (In total, the UK and US dropped around 1.9
million tons on Germany over 6 years.)
Bombing German cities clearly did have an impact on the war. The question, though, is how much.
The post-war US Bombing Survey estimated that the effect of all allied city bombing probably depleted the German economy
by no more than 2.7 per cent.
Allowing for differences of opinion on the efficacy or necessity of “area bombing” in the days when
the war’s outcome remained uncertain (arguably until Stalingrad in February 1943), the key question on today’s
anniversary remains whether the bombing of Dresden in February 1945 was militarily necessary — because by then the
war was definitely over. Hitler was already in his bunker. The British and Americans were at the German border after winning
D-Day the previous summer, while the Russians under Zhukov and Konev were well inside eastern Germany and racing pell-mell
Dresden was a civilian town without military significance. It had no material role of any sort to play in the closing
months of the war. So, what strategic purpose did burning its men, women, old people, and children serve? Churchill himself
later wrote that “the destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing”.
Seventy years on,
fewer people ask precisely which military objective justified the hell unleashed on Dresden. If there was no good strategic
reason for it, then not even the passage of time can make it right, and the questions it poses remain as difficult as ever
in a world in which civilians have continued to suffer unspeakably in the wars of their autocratic leaders.
Click on this text to see what the "good guys' did to Dresden February 13th and 14th 1945...
13th February 1945 I was a navigator on one of the Lancaster bombers which devastated Dresden. I well remember the briefing
by our Group Captain. We were told that the Red Army was thrusting towards Dresden and that the town would be crowded with
refugees and that the center of the town would be full of women and children. Our aiming point
would be the market place.
I recall that we were somewhat uneasy, but we did as we were told. We accordingly
bombed the target and on our way back our wireless operator picked up a German broadcast accusing the RAF of terror tactics,
and that 65,000 civilians had died. We dismissed this as German propaganda.
The penny didn't
drop until a few weeks later when my squadron received a visit from the Crown Film Unit who were making the wartime propaganda
films. There was a mock briefing, with one notable difference. The same Group Captain now said, 'as the market place would
be filled with women and children on no account would we bomb the center of the town. Instead, our aiming point would be
a vital railway junction to the east.
I can categorically confirm that
the Dresden raid was a black mark on Britain's war record. The aircrews on my squadron were convinced that this wicked act
was not instigated by our much-respected guvnor 'Butch' Harris but by Churchill. I have waited 29 years to say this, and
it still worries me."
Click on this text to see: Dresden Bombing Commemoration - A TRUE Holocaust (full)
Klicken Sie auf diesen Text, um das Video zu sehen:Feuersturm Dresden...
His full name was Walt Whitman Rostow. He fulfilled the hopes of his parents, Jewish
immigrants from Russia, that he would grow up to be a successful American.
During WWII he was
attached to the OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES (OSS), an intelligence unit and precursor to the CIA, picking targets in Germany
for American bombers to attack.
February 13th and 14th, 1945 (two months prior to the German surrender) were the
dates chosen to firebomb Dresden, Germany after intense lobbying by Rostow.
February 14th, 1945 was the Christian
holy day known as "Ash Wednesday"... How clever to choose Ash Wednesday to reduce a city over-populated by women,
children and wounded to ashes.
He went on to serve as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to President Lyndon Johnson in 1966–69.
We can curse his memory for his prominent role in the shaping of US foreign policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s
and fanning the flames of the Viet Nam War debacle.
Appropriately Rostow died on February 13th, 2003
Was a Civilian Town With No Military Significance. Why Did We Burn Its People?
... Supporters of Britain's "area bombing"
(targeting civilians instead of military or industrial sites) maintain that it was a vital part of the war. Churchill
wrote that he wanted "absolutely devastating, exterminating attacks by very heavy bombers from this country upon the
Nazi homeland". In another letter he called it "terror bombing". ... Others maintain that it was ghastly,
but Hitler started it so needed to be answered in a language he understood. Unfortunately, records show that the first
intentional "area bombing" of civilians in the Second World War took place at Monchengladbach on 11 May 1940
at Churchill's orders (the day after he dramatically became prime minister), and four months before the Luftwaffe began
its Blitz of British cities.
In the last months of World War II, Allied bombers
from the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Force conducted several major bombing raids on the eastern
German city of Dresden. Beginning on the night of February 13, 1945, more than 1,200 heavy bombers dropped nearly 4,000
tons of high-explosive and incendiary bombs on the city in four successive raids. An estimated 25,000 people were killed
in the bombings and the firestorm that raged afterward. More than 75,000 dwellings were destroyed, along with unique monuments
of Baroque architecture in the historic city center. With photographs.
Many Germans Died under RAF Bombs at Dresden in 1945?
The bombing of Dresden remains one of the deadliest and morally most-problematic raids of
World War II. Three factors make the bombing of Dresden unique: 1) a huge firestorm developed that engulfed much of the
city; 2) the firestorm engulfed a population swollen by refugees; and 3) defenses and shelters even for the original Dresden
population were minimal. The result was a high death toll and the destruction of one of Europe’s most beautiful and cultural cities.
estimates have been made concerning the number of deaths during the raids of Dresden on February 13-14, 1945. Historian
Richard J. Evans estimates that approximately 25,000 people died during these bombings. Frederick Taylor estimates that from 25,000 to 40,000 people died as a result of the Dresden bombings. A distinguished commission of German historians titled “Dresden Commission of Historians for the Ascertainment of
the Number of Victims of the Air Raids on the City of Dresden on 13/14 February 1945” estimates the likely death toll
in Dresden at around 18,000 and definitely not more than 25,000. This later estimate is considered authoritative by many sources.
While exact figures of deaths in the Dresden bombings can never
be obtained, some Revisionist historians estimate a death toll at Dresden as high as 250,000 people. Most establishment
historians state that a death toll at Dresden of 250,000 is an absolute impossibility. For example, Richard Evans states:
Even allowing for the unique circumstances of Dresden, a figure of 250,000 dead would have meant that 20% to 30% of the population
was killed, a figure so grossly out of proportion to other comparable attacks as to have raised the eyebrows of anyone familiar
with the statistics of bombing raids…even if the population had been inflated by an influx of refugees fleeing the
advance of the Red Army.
Historians generally agree that a large number of German refugees were in Dresden during the night of February 13-14, 1945.
However, the estimate of refugees in Dresden that night varies widely. This is a major reason for the discrepancies in the
death toll estimates in the Dresden bombings.
Marshall De Bruhl states in his book Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the
Destruction of Dresden:
Nearly every apartment and house [in Dresden] was crammed with relatives
or friends from the east; many other residents had been ordered to take in strangers. There were makeshift campsites everywhere.
Some 200,000 Silesians and East Prussians were living in tents or shacks in the Grosser Garten. The city’s population
was more than double its prewar size. Some estimates have put the number as high as 1.4 million.
Unlike other major German cities, Dresden had an exceptionally low population
density, due to the large proportion of single houses surrounded by gardens. Even the built-up areas did not have the congestion
of Berlin and Munich. However, in February 1945, the open spaces, gardens, and parks were filled with people.
The Reich provided rail transport from the east for hundreds of thousands
of the fleeing easterners, but the last train out of the city had run on February 12. Transport further west was scheduled
to resume in a few days; until then, the refugees were stranded in the Saxon capital.
David Irving states in The Destruction of Dresden:
Silesians represented probably 80% of the displaced
people crowding into Dresden on the night of the triple blow; the city which in peacetime had a population of 630,000 citizens
was by the eve of the air attack so crowded with Silesians, East Prussians and Pomeranians from the Eastern Front, with
Berliners and Rhinelanders from the west, with Allied and Russian prisoners of war, with evacuated children’s settlement,
with forced laborers of many nationalities, that the increased population was now between 1,200,000 and 1,400,000 citizens,
of whom, not surprisingly, several hundred thousand had no proper home and of whom none could seek the protection of an
A woman living on the outskirts of Dresden at the time of the bombings stated: “At the time my mother and I had train-station
duty here in the city. The refugees! They all came from everywhere! The city was stuffed full!”
Frederick Taylor states in his book Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945 that Dresden had been accepting refugees
from the devastated cities of the Ruhr, and from Hamburg and Berlin, ever since the British bombing campaign began in earnest.
By late 1943 Dresden was already overstretched and finding it hard to accept more outsiders. By the winter of 1944-1945,
hundreds of thousands of German refugees were traveling from the east in an attempt to escape the Russian army.
The German government regarded the acceptance of Germans from the east as an essential duty. Der Freiheitskampf,
the official German organ for Saxony, urged citizens to offer temporary accommodation:
There is still room everywhere.
No family should remain without guests! Whether or not your habits of life are compatible, whether the coziness of your
domestic situation is disturbed, none of these things should matter! At our doors stand people who for the moment have no
home—not even to mention the loss of their possessions.
However, Taylor states that it was general policy in Dresden to have refugees on their way to the west to continue onwards
within 24 hours. Fleeing the Russians was not a valid justification for seeking and maintaining residence in Dresden. Taylor
states that the best estimate by Götz Bergander, who spent time on fire-watching duties and on refugee-relief work
in Dresden, was that approximately 200,000 nonresidents were in Dresden on the night of February 13-14, 1945. Many of these
refugees would have been living in quarters away from the targeted center of Dresden.
The Dresden historian Friedrich Reichert estimates that only 567,000 residents and 100,000 refugees were in Dresden on the
night of the bombings. Reichert quotes witnesses who state that no refugees were billeted in Dresden houses and that no
billeting took place in Dresden’s parks or squares. Thus, Reichert estimates that the number of people in Dresden
on the night of the bombings was not much greater than the official figure of Dresden’s population before the war.
Reichert’s estimate of Dresden’s population during the bombings is almost certainly too low. As a RAF memo analyzed
it before the attack:
Dresden, the seventh largest city in Germany and not much smaller than Manchester
is also [by] far the largest unbombed built-up area the enemy has got. In the midst of winter with refugees pouring westwards
and troops to be rested, roofs are at a premium, not only to give shelter to workers, refugees and troops alike, but also
to house the administrative services displaced from other areas…
Alexander McKee states in regard to Dresden:
Every household had its large quota of refugees, and many more had arrived
in Dresden that day, so that the pavements were blocked by them, as they struggled onwards or simply sat exhausted on their
suitcases and rucksacks. For these reasons, no one has been able to put a positive figure to the numbers of the dead, and
no doubt no one ever will.
The report prepared by the USAF Historical Division Research Studies Institute Air University states that “there may
probably have been about 1,000,000 people in Dresden on the night of the 13/14 February RAF attack.” I think the 1 million population figure cited in this report constitutes a realistic and conservative minimum estimate
of Dresden’s population during the Allied bombings of February 13-14, 1945.
Did Only 25,000 People Die?
If the 25,000 death-toll estimate in Dresden
is accurate, we are left with the odd result that Allied air power, employed for textbook purposes to its full measure and
with no restrictions, over an especially vulnerable large city near the end of the war, when Allied air superiority was
absolute and German defenses nearly nonexistent, was less effective than Allied air power had been in previous more-difficult
operations such as Hamburg or Berlin. I think the extensive ruins left in Dresden suggest a degree of complete destruction
not seen before in Germany[NJP1] .
The Dresden bombings created a massive firestorm of epic proportions, and were in no way a failed mission with only a fraction
of the intended results. The fires from the first raid alone had been visible more than 100 miles from Dresden. The Dresden raid was the perfect execution of the Bomber Command theory of the double blow: two waves of bombers, three
hours apart, followed the next day by a massive daylight raid by more bombers and escort fighters. Only a handful of raids
ever actually conformed to this double-strike theory, and those that did were cataclysmic.
Dresden also lacked an effective network of air-raid shelters to protect its inhabitants. Hitler had ordered that over 3,000
air-raid bunkers be built in 80 German towns and cities. However, not one was built in Dresden because the city was not
regarded as being in danger of air attack. Instead, the civil air defense in Dresden devoted most of its efforts to creating
tunnels between the cellars of the housing blocks so that people could escape from one building to another. These tunnels
exacerbated the effects of the Dresden firestorm by channeling smoke and fumes from one basement to the next and sucking
out the oxygen from a network of interconnected cellars.
The vast majority of the population of Dresden did not have access to proper air-raid shelters. When the British RAF attacked
Dresden that night, all the residents and refugees in Dresden could do was take refuge in their cellars. These cellars proved
to be death traps in many cases. People who managed to escape from their cellars were often sucked into the firestorm as
they struggled to flee the city.
Dresden was all but defenseless against air attack, and the people of Dresden suffered the consequences. The bombers in the
Dresden raids were able to conduct their attacks relatively free from fear of harassment by German defenses. The master
bombers ordered the bombers to descend to lower levels, and the crews felt confident to do so and to maintain a steady altitude
and heading during the bombing runs. This ensured that the Dresden raids were particularly concentrated and thus particularly
effective. The RAF conducted a technically perfect fire-raising attack on Dresden.
The British were fully aware that mass death and destruction could result from the bombing of Germany’s cities. The
Directorate of Bombing Operations predicted the following consequences from Operation Thunderclap:
If we assume that the
daytime population of the area attacked is 300,000, we may expect 220,000 casualties. Fifty per cent of these or 110,000
may expect to be killed. It is suggested that such an attack resulting in so many deaths, the great proportion of which will
be key personnel, cannot help but have a shattering effect on political and civilian morale all over Germany.”
The destruction of Dresden was so complete that major companies were reporting fewer than 50% of their workforce present
two weeks after the raids. By the end of February 1945, only 369,000 inhabitants remained in the city. Dresden was subject to further American attacks
by 406 B-17s on March 2 and 580 B-17s on April 17, leaving an additional 453 dead.
Comparison to Pforzheim
A raid that closely resembles that of Dresden occurred 10 days later on February 23, 1945 at Pforzheim. Since neither Dresden
nor Pforzheim had suffered much damage earlier in the war, the flammability of both cities had been preserved. A perfect firestorm was created in both of these defenseless cities. These cities also lacked sufficient air-raid shelters
for their citizens.
The area of destruction at Pforzheim comprised approximately 83% of the city, and 20,277 out of 65,000 people died according
to official estimates. Sönke Neitzel also estimates that approximately 20,000 out of a total population of 65,000 died in the raid at Pforzheim. This means that over 30% of the residents of Pforzheim died in one bombing attack.
The question is: If more than 30% of the
residents of Pforzheim died in one bombing attack, why would only approximately 2.5% of Dresdeners die in similar raids
10 days earlier? The second wave of bombers in the Dresden raid appeared over Dresden at the very time that the maximum
number of fire brigades and rescue teams were in the streets of the burning city. This second wave of bombers compounded
the earlier destruction many times, and by design killed the firemen and rescue workers so that the destruction in Dresden
could rage on unchecked. The raid on Pforzheim, by contrast, consisted of only one bombing attack. Also, Pforzheim was a much smaller target, so
that it would have been easier for the people on the ground to escape from the blaze.
The only reason why the death-rate percentage
would be higher at Pforzheim versus Dresden is that a higher percentage of Pforzheim was destroyed in the bombings. Alan
Russell estimates that 83% of Pforzheim’s city center was destroyed versus only 59% of Dresden’s. This would, however, account for only a portion of the percentage difference in the death tolls. Based on the death toll
in the Pforzheim raid, it is reasonable to assume that a minimum of 20% of Dresdeners died in the British and American attacks
on the city. The 2.5% death rate figure of Dresdeners estimated by establishment historians is an unrealistically low figure.
If a 20%
death rate figure times an estimated population in Dresden of 1 million is used, the death-toll figure in Dresden would be
200,000. If a 25% death-rate figure times an estimated population of 1.2 million is used, the death toll figure in Dresden
would be 300,000. Thus, death-toll estimates in Dresden of 250,000 people are quite plausible when compared to the Pforzheim
How Were the
Dead Disposed Of?
Historian Richard Evans asks:
And how was it imaginable that 200,000 bodies could have been recovered
from out of the ruins in less than a month? It would have required a veritable army of people to undertake such work, and
hundreds of sorely needed vehicles to transport the bodies. The effort actually undertaken to recover bodies was considerable,
but there was no evidence that it reached the levels required to remove this number.
Richard Evans does not recognize that the incineration of corpses on the Dresden market square, the Altmarkt, was not the
only means of disposing of bodies at Dresden. A British sergeant reported on the disposal of bodies at Dresden:
They had to pitchfork shriveled bodies onto trucks and wagons and cart them to shallow graves on the outskirts of the city.
But after two weeks of work the job became too much to cope with and they found other means to gather up the dead. They
burned bodies in a great heap in the center of the city, but the most effective way, for sanitary reasons, was to take flamethrowers
and burn the dead as they lay in the ruins. They would just turn the flamethrowers into the houses, burn the dead and then
close off the entire area. The whole city is flattened. They were unable to clean up the dead lying beside roads for several
Historians also differ on whether or not large numbers of bodies in Dresden were so incinerated in the bombing that they
could no longer be recognized as bodies. Frederick Taylor mentions Walter Weidauer, the high burgomaster of Dresden in the
postwar period, as stating
[T]here is no substance to the reports that tens of thousands of victims
were so thoroughly incinerated that no individual traces could be found. Not all were identified, but—especially as
most victims died of asphyxiation or physical injuries—the overwhelming majority of individuals’ bodies could
at least be distinguished as such.”
Other historians cite evidence that bodies were incinerated beyond recognition. Alexander McKee quotes Hildegarde Prasse
on what she saw at the Altmarkt after the Dresden bombings:
What I saw at the Altmarkt was cruel.
I could not believe my eyes. A few of the men who had been left over [from the Front] were busy shoveling corpse after corpse
on top of the other. Some were completely carbonized and buried in this pyre, but nevertheless they were all burnt here
because of the danger of an epidemic. In any case, what was left of them was hardly recognizable. They were buried later
in a mass grave on the Dresdner Heide.
Marshall De Bruhl cites a report found in an urn by a gravedigger in 1975 written on March 12, 1945, by a young soldier
identified only as Gottfried. This report states:
I saw the most painful
scene ever….Several persons were near the entrance, others at the flight of steps and many others further back in
the cellar. The shapes suggested human corpses. The body structure was recognizable and the shape of the skulls, but they
had no clothes. Eyes and hair carbonized but not shrunk. When touched, they disintegrated into ashes, totally, no skeleton
or separate bones.
I recognized a male
corpse as that of my father. His arm had been jammed between two stones, where shreds of his grey suit remained. What sat
not far from him was no doubt mother. The slim build and shape of the head left no doubt. I found a tin and put their ashes
in it. Never had I been so sad, so alone and full of despair. Carrying my treasure and crying I left the gruesome scene.
I was trembling all over and my heart threatened to burst. My helpers stood there, mute under the impact.
The incineration of large numbers of people in Dresden is also indicated by estimates of the extreme temperature reached
in Dresden during the firestorm. While no survivor has ever reported the actual temperature reached during the Dresden firestorm,
many historians estimate that temperatures reached 1,500° Centigrade (2,732° Fahrenheit). Since temperatures in a cremation chamber normally reach only 1,400 degrees to 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit, large numbers of people in Dresden would have been incinerated from the extreme heat generated in the firestorm.
also differ on whether or not bodies are still being recovered in Dresden. For example, Frederick Taylor states: “Since
1989—even with the extensive excavation and rebuilding that followed the fall of communism in Dresden—no bodies
have been recovered at all, even though careful archaeological investigations have accompanied the redevelopment.”
Marshall De Bruhl does not agree with Taylor’s statement. De Bruhl notes that numerous other skeletons of victims were
discovered in the ruins of Dresden as rubble was removed or foundations for new buildings were dug. De Bruhl states:
One particularly poignant discovery was made when the ruins adjacent to the Altmarkt were being excavated in the 1990s. The
workmen found the skeletons of a dozen young women who had been recruited from the countryside to come into Dresden and
help run the trams during the war. They had taken shelter from the rain of bombs in an ancient vaulted subbasement, where
their remains lay undisturbed for almost 50 years.
from the Dresden bombings was so massive that exact figures of deaths will never be obtainable. However, the statement from
the Dresden Commission of Historians that “definitely no more than 25,000” died in the Dresden bombings is probably
inaccurate. An objective analysis of the evidence indicates that almost certainly far more than 25,000 people died from
the bombings of Dresden. Based on a comparison to the Pforzheim bombing and the other similar bombing attacks, a death toll
in Dresden of 250,000 people is easily possible.
 McKee, Alexander, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox, New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1984, p. 275.
 Evans, Richard J., Lying about Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial, New York: Basic Books, 2001,
 Taylor, Frederick, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945, New York: HarperCollins, 2004, p. 354.
 Evans, Richard J., Lying about Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial, New York: Basic Books, 2001,
 DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden, New York: Random House, Inc., 2006,
 Irving, David, The Destruction of Dresden, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964, p. 98.
 Ten Dyke, Elizabeth A., Dresden: Paradoxes of Memory in History, London and New York: Routledge, 2001, p. 82.
 Taylor, Frederick, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945, New York: HarperCollins, 2004, pp. 134, 227-228.
 Ibid., pp. 229, 232.
 Evans, Richard J., Lying about Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial, New York: Basic Books, 2001,
 Taylor, Frederick, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945, New York: HarperCollins, 2004, pp. 3, 406. See also River,
Charles Editors, The Firebombing of Dresden: The History and Legacy of the Allies’ Most Controversial Attack on
Germany, Introduction, p. 2.
 McKee, Alexander, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox, New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1984, p. 177.
 Cox, Sebastian, “The Dresden Raids: Why and How,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm:
The Bombing of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, pp. 44, 46.
 DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden, New York: Random House, Inc., 2006,
 Neitzel, Sönke, “The City under Attack,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm: The
Bombing of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, pp. 68-69.
 Ibid., pp. 69, 72, 76.
 Cox, Sebastian, “The Dresden Raids: Why and How,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm:
The Bombing of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, pp. 52-53.
 Davis, Richard G., Carl A. Spaatz and the Air War in Europe, Washington, D.C.: Center for Air Force History, 1993,
 Hastings, Max, Bomber Command, New York: The Dial Press, 1979, pp. 347-348.
 Cox, Sebastian, “The Dresden Raids: Why and How,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm:
The Bombing of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, p. 57.
 Overy, Richard, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War over Europe, 1940-1945, New York: Viking Penguin, 2014,
 Friedrich, Jörg, The Fire: The Bombing of Germany, New York, Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 94.
 Ibid., p. 91. See also DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden,
New York: Random House, Inc., 2006, p. 255.
 Neitzel, Sönke, “The City under Attack,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm: The
Bombing of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, p. 77.
 DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden, New York: Random House, Inc., 2006,
p. 210. See also McKee, Alexander, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox, New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1984,
 Russell, Alan, “Why Dresden Matters,” in Addison, Paul and Crang, Jeremy A., (eds.), Firestorm: The Bombing
of Dresden, 1945, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2006, p. 162.
 Evans, Richard J., Lying About Hitler: History, Holocaust, and the David Irving Trial, New York: Basic Books, 2001,
 Regan, Dan, Stars and Stripes London edition, Saturday, May 5, 1945, Vol. 5, No. 156.
 Taylor, Frederick, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945, New York: HarperCollins, 2004, p. 448.
 McKee, Alexander, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox, New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1984, p. 248.
 DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden, New York: Random House, Inc., 2006,
 Alexander McKee cites estimates of 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit (McKee, Alexander, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox,
New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1984, p. 176).
 Taylor, Frederick, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945, New York: HarperCollins, 2004, p. 448.
 DeBruhl, Marshall, Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden, New York: Random House, Inc., 2006,
The Blood of Dresden
Following is an extract from Armageddon
in Retrospect by Kurt Vonnegut in which he describes the scenes of ‘obscene
brutality’ he witnessed as a prisoner of war in Dresden which inspired his classic novel Slaughterhouse-Five.
Dresden before the allied bombing
It was a routine speech we got during our first day of basic training,
delivered by a wiry little lieutenant: “Men, up to now you’ve been good, clean, American boys with an American’s
love for sportsmanship and fair play. We’re here to change that.
“Our job is to make you the meanest, dirtiest bunch of scrappers in the history
of the world. From now on, you can forget the Marquess of Queensberry rules and every other set of rules. Anything and everything
“Never hit a man
above the belt when you can kick him below it. Make the bastard scream. Kill him any way you can. Kill, kill, kill –
do you understand?”
talk was greeted with nervous laughter and general agreement that he was right. “Didn’t Hitler and Tojo say the
Americans were a bunch of softies? Ha! They’ll find out.”
And of course, Germany and Japan did find out: a toughened-up democracy poured forth
a scalding fury that could not be stopped. It was a war of reason against barbarism, supposedly, with the issues at stake
on such a high plane that most of our feverish fighters had no idea why they were fighting – other than that the enemy
was a bunch of bastards. A new kind of war, with all destruction, all killing approved.
A lot of people relished the idea of total war: it had a modern
ring to it, in keeping with our spectacular technology. To them it was like a football game.
[Back home in America], three small-town merchants’ wives, middle-aged
and plump, gave me a ride when I was hitchhiking home from Camp Atterbury. “Did you kill a lot of them Germans?”
asked the driver, making cheerful small-talk. I told her I didn’t know.
This was taken for modesty. As I was getting out of the car, one of the
ladies patted me on the shoulder in motherly fashion: “I’ll bet you’d like to get over and kill some of
them dirty Japs now, wouldn’t you?”
We exchanged knowing winks. I didn’t tell those simple souls that I had been captured after a week at the
front; and more to the point, what I knew and thought about killing dirty Germans, about total war. The reason for my being
sick at heart then and now has to do with an incident that received cursory treatment in the American newspapers. In February
1945, Dresden, Germany, was destroyed, and with it over 100,000 human beings. I was there. Not many know how tough America
I was among a group of
150 infantry privates, captured in the Bulge breakthrough and put to work in Dresden. Dresden, we were told, was the only
major German city to have escaped bombing so far. That was in January 1945. She owed her good fortune to her unwarlike countenance:
hospitals, breweries, food-processing plants, surgical supply houses, ceramics, musical instrument factories and the like.
Since the war [had started], hospitals had
become her prime concern. Every day hundreds of wounded came into the tranquil sanctuary from the east and west. At night,
we would hear the dull rumble of distant air raids. “Chemnitz is getting it tonight,” we used to say, and speculated
what it might be like to be the bright young men with their dials and cross-hairs.
“Thank heaven we’re in an ‘open city’,” we
thought, and so thought the thousands of refugees – women, children and old men who came in a forlorn stream from
the smouldering wreckage of Berlin, Leipzig, Breslau, Munich. They flooded the city to twice its normal population.
There was no war in Dresden. True, planes
came over nearly every day and the sirens wailed, but the planes were always en route elsewhere. The alarms furnished a
relief period in a tedious work day, a social event, a chance to gossip in the shelters. The shelters, in fact, were not
much more than a gesture, casual recognition of the national emergency: wine cellars and basements with benches in them and
sandbags blocking the windows, for the most part. There were a few more adequate bunkers in the centre of the city, close
to the government offices, but nothing like the staunch subterranean fortress that rendered Berlin impervious to her daily
pounding. Dresden had no reason to prepare for attack – and thereby hangs a beastly tale.
Dresden was surely among the world’s most lovely cities. Her streets
were broad, lined with shade-trees. She was sprinkled with countless little parks and statuary. She had marvellous old churches,
libraries, museums, theatres, art galleries, beer gardens, a zoo and a renowned university.
It was at one time a tourist’s paradise. They would be far better
informed on the city’s delights than am I. But the impression I have is that in Dresden – in the physical city
– were the symbols of the good life; pleasant, honest, intelligent. In the swastika’s shadow, those symbols
of the dignity and hope of mankind stood waiting, monuments to truth. The accumulated treasure of hundreds of years, Dresden
spoke eloquently of those things excellent in European civilisa-tion wherein our debt lies deep.
I was a prisoner, hungry, dirty and full of hate for our captors, but I
loved that city and saw the blessed wonder of her past and the rich promise of her future.
In February 1945, American bombers reduced this treasure to crushed stone
and embers; disembowelled her with high explosives and cremated her with incendiaries.
The atom bomb may represent a fabulous advance, but it is interesting to
note that primitive TNT and thermite managed to exterminate in one bloody night more people than died in the whole London
blitz. Fortress Dresden fired a dozen shots at our airmen. Once back at their bases and sipping hot coffee, they probably
remarked: “Flak unusually light tonight. Well, guess it’s time to turn in.” Captured British pilots from
tactical fighter units (covering frontline troops) used to chide those who had flown heavy bombers on city raids with: “How
on earth did you stand the stink of boiling urine and burning perambulators?”
A perfectly routine piece of news: “Last night our planes attacked
Dresden. All planes returned safely.” The only good German is a dead one: over 100,000 evil men, women, and children
(the able-bodied were at the fronts) forever purged of their sins against humanity. By chance, I met a bombardier who had
taken part in the attack. “We hated to do it,” he told me.
The night they came over, we spent in an underground meat locker in a slaughterhouse.
We were lucky, for it was the best shelter in town. Giants stalked the earth above us. First came the soft murmur of their
dancing on the outskirts, then the grumbling of their plodding towards us, and finally the ear-splitting crashes of their
heels upon us – and thence to the outskirts again. Back and forth they swept: saturation bombing.
“I screamed and I wept and I clawed the walls of our shelter,”
an old lady told me. “I prayed to God to ‘please, please, please, dear God, stop them’. But he didn’t
hear me. No power could stop them. On they came, wave after wave. There was no way we could surrender; no way to tell them
we couldn’t stand it any more. There was nothing anyone could do but sit and wait for morning.” Her daughter
and grandson were killed.
little prison was burnt to the ground. We were to be evacuated to an outlying camp occupied by South African prisoners. Our
guards were a melancholy lot, aged Volkssturmers and disabled veterans. Most of them were Dresden residents and had friends
and families somewhere in the holocaust. A corporal, who had lost an eye after two years on the Russian front, ascertained
before we marched that his wife, his two children and both of his parents had been killed. He had one cigarette. He shared
it with me.
Dresden after the allied bombing
Our march to new quarters took us to the city’s edge. It was impossible
to believe that anyone had survived in its heart. Ordinarily, the day would have been cold, but occasional gusts from the
colossal inferno made us sweat. And ordinarily, the day would have been clear and bright, but an opaque and towering cloud
turned noon to twilight.
procession clogged the outbound highways; people with blackened faces streaked with tears, some bearing wounded, some bearing
dead. They gathered in the fields. No one spoke. A few with Red Cross armbands did what they could for the casualties.
Settled with the South Africans, we enjoyed
a week without work. At the end of it, communications were reestablished with higher headquarters and we were ordered to
hike seven miles to the area hardest hit.
Nothing in the district had escaped the fury. A city of jagged building shells, of splintered statuary and shattered
trees; every vehicle stopped, gnarled and burnt, left to rust or rot in the path of the frenzied might. The only sounds
other than our own were those of falling plaster and their echoes.
I cannot describe the desolation properly, but I can give an idea of how it made
us feel, in the words of a delirious British soldier in a makeshift POW hospital: “It’s frightenin’, I
tell you. I would walk down one of them bloody streets and feel a thousand eyes on the back of me ’ead. I would ’ear
’em whis-perin’ behind me. I would turn around to look at ’em and there wouldn’t be a bloomin’
soul in sight. You can feel ’em and you can ’ear ’em but there’s never anybody there.” We knew
what he said was so.
work, we were divided into small crews, each under a guard. Our ghoulish mission was to search for bodies. It was rich hunting
that day and the many thereafter. We started on a small scale – here a leg, there an arm, and an occasional baby –
but struck a mother lode before noon.
We cut our way through a basement wall to discover a reeking hash of over 100 human beings. Flame must have swept
through before the building’s collapse sealed the exits, because the flesh of those within resembled the texture of
prunes. Our job, it was explained, was to wade into the shambles and bring forth the remains. Encouraged by cuffing and
guttural abuse, wade in we did. We did exactly that, for the floor was covered with an unsavoury broth from burst water mains
A number of victims,
not killed outright, had attempted to escape through a narrow emergency exit. At any rate, there were several bodies packed
tightly into the passageway. Their leader had made it halfway up the steps before he was buried up to his neck in falling
brick and plaster. He was about 15, I think.
It is with some regret that I here besmirch the nobility of our airmen, but, boys, you killed an appalling lot of
women and children. The shelter I have described and innumerable others like it were filled with them. We had to exhume
their bodies and carry them to mass funeral pyres in the parks, so I know.
The funeral pyre technique was abandoned when it became apparent how great was the
toll. There was not enough labour to do it nicely, so a man with a flamethrower was sent down instead, and he cremated them
where they lay. Burnt alive, suffocated, crushed – men, women, and children indiscriminately killed.
the sublimity of the cause for which we fought, we surely created a Belsen of our own. The method was impersonal, but the
result was equally cruel and heartless. That, I am afraid, is a sickening truth.
When we had become used to the darkness, the odour and the carnage, we
began musing as to what each of the corpses had been in life. It was a sordid game: “Rich man, poor man, beggar man,
thief . . .” Some had fat purses and jewellery, others had precious foodstuffs. A boy had his dog still leashed to
Renegade Ukrainians in
German uniform were in charge of our operations in the shelters proper. They were roaring drunk from adjacent wine cellars
and seemed to enjoy their job hugely. It was a profitable one, for they stripped each body of valuables before we carried
it to the street. Death became so commonplace that we could joke about our dismal burdens and cast them about like so much
Not so with the first
of them, especially the young: we had lifted them on to the stretchers with care, laying them out with some semblance of
funeral dignity in their last resting place before the pyre. But our awed and sorrowful propriety gave way, as I said, to
rank callousness. At the end of a grisly day, we would smoke and survey the impressive heap of dead accumulated. One of
us flipped his cigarette butt into the pile: “Hell’s bells,” he said, “I’m ready for Death
any time he wants to come after me.”
days after the raid, the sirens screamed again. The listless and heartsick survivors were showered this time with leaflets.
I lost my copy of the epic, but remember that it ran something like this: “To the people of Dresden: we were forced
to bomb your city because of the heavy military traffic your railroad facilities have been carrying. We realise that we
haven’t always hit our objectives. Destruction of anything other than military objectives was unintentional, unavoidable
fortunes of war.”
explained the slaughter to everyone’s satisfaction, I am sure, but it aroused no little contempt. It is a fact that
48 hours after the last B-17 had droned west for a well-earned rest, labour battalions had swarmed over the damaged rail
yards and restored them to nearly normal service. None of the rail bridges over the Elbe was knocked out of commission.
Bomb-sight manufacturers should blush to know that their marvellous devices laid bombs down as much as three miles wide of
what the military claimed to be aiming for.
The leaflet should have said: “We hit every blessed church, hospital, school, museum, theatre, your university,
the zoo, and every apartment building in town, but we honestly weren’t trying hard to do it. C’est la guerre.
So sorry. Besides, saturation bombing is all the rage these days, you know.”
There was tactical significance: stop the railroads. An excellent manoeuvre,
no doubt, but the technique was horrible. The planes started kicking high explosives and incendiaries through their bomb-bays
at the city limits, and for all the pattern their hits presented, they must have been briefed by a Ouija board.
Tabulate the loss against the gain. Over
100,000 noncombatants and a magnificent city destroyed by bombs dropped wide of the stated objectives: the railroads were
knocked out for roughly two days. The Germans counted it the greatest loss of life suffered in any single raid. The death
of Dresden was a bitter tragedy, needlessly and wilfully executed. The killing of children – “Jerry” children
or “Jap” children, or whatever enemies the future may hold for us – can never be justified.
The facile reply to great groans such as
mine is the most hateful of all clichés, “fortunes of war”, and another: “They asked for it. All
they understand is force.”
asked for it? The only thing who understands is force? Believe me, it is not easy to rationalise the stamping out
of vineyards where the grapes of wrath are stored when gathering up babies in bushel baskets or helping a man dig where
he thinks his wife may be buried.
enemy military and industrial installations should have been blown flat, and woe unto those foolish enough to seek shelter
near them. But the “Get Tough America” policy, the spirit of revenge, the approbation of all destruction and
killing, have earned us a name for obscene brutality.
Our leaders had a carte blanche as to what they might or might not destroy. Their mission was to win the war as
quickly as possible; and while they were admirably trained to do just that, their decisions on the fate of certain priceless
world heirlooms – in one case, Dresden – were not always judicious. When, late in the war, with the Wehrmacht
breaking up on all fronts, our planes were sent to destroy this last major city, I doubt if the question was asked: “How
will this tragedy benefit us, and how will that benefit compare with the ill-effects in the long run?”
Dresden, a beautiful city, built in the art
spirit, symbol of an admirable heritage, so antiNazi that Hitler visited it but twice during his whole reign, food and hospital
centre so bitterly needed now – ploughed under and salt strewn in the furrows.
World war two was fought for near-holy motives. But I stand convinced that
the brand of justice in which we dealt, wholesale bombings of civilian populations, was blasphemous. That the enemy did
it first has nothing to do with the moral problem. What I saw of our air war, as the European conflict neared an end, had
the earmarks of being an irrational war for war’s sake. Soft citizens of the American democracy had learnt to kick
a man below the belt and make the bastard scream.
The occupying Russians, when they discovered that we were Americans, embraced us and congratulated us on the complete
desolation our planes had wrought. We accepted their congratulations with good grace and proper modesty, but I felt then
as I feel now, that I would have given my life to save Dresden for the world’s generations to come. That is how everyone
should feel about every city on earth.
© Kurt Vonnegut Jr Trust 2008
Click on this text to see: Dresden - Bombing 13.-15.02.1945 US Army Air Force RAF War Crime ...
1945: The Devil's Tinderbox
- Dresden 1945: The Devil's Tinderbox,by Alexander McKee. New York: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1982, 1984, with maps,
Reviewed by Charles Lutton
of the virtually undefended German city of Dresden by bombers of the Royal Air Force and U.S. Army Air Force, in mid-February,
1945, remains one of the most controversial episodes of the Second World War. In 1963, British historian David Irving published
a pathbreaking study on this topic. Another widely-published British military historian, Alexander McKee, has produced a
new account of the Dresden bombing, based in part upon an examination of official records recently declassified, as well
as interviews from survivors of the attack and Allied airmen who flew in the raids.
McKee had doubts about the efficacy of area bombing
when, as a soldier with the 1st Canadian Army, he witnessed the results of the Allied bombing of "friendly" French
towns. Following visits to the cities of Caen and Lisieux, he wrote in his personal war diary:
"Lisieux and Caen are examples of the inflexibility
of the four-motor heavy bombers: it cannot block a road without bringing down a city. I'm not surprised that our troops
advancing between Caen and Lisiel=c were fired on by French civilians. No doubt many Frenchmen found it hard to be liberated
by a people who seem, by their actions, to specialise in the mass murder of their friends."
McKee was an eye-witness to the final destruction
of the towns of Emmerich and Arnhem. He related that, "In Emmerich I saw no building whatever intact .... This process,
when the town was an Allied one, we referred to with bitter mockery as 'Liberation.' When you said that such-and-such a
place had been 'liberated,' you meant that hardly one stone still stood upon another."
The bombing of urban areas which might contain
targets of military importance was a policy advocated by leading British air strategists long before the outbreak of the
war. McKee reviewed the writings of the air power theorists of the 1920s and 30s, observing that "retreading them now
is like browsing through a British Mein Kampf. The horror to come is all there between the lines. What they are really advocating
is an all-out attack on non-combatants, men, women, and children, as a deliberate policy of terror?"
After sifting through the evidence, the author
refers to these proferred justifications as the "standard white-wash gambit." There was a military barracks in
Dresden, but it was located on the out skirts of the "New Town," miles away from the selected target area. There
were some hutted camps in the city-full of starving refugees who had fled from the advancing Red Terror in the East. The
main road route passed on the west outside the city limits. The railway network led to an important junction, but this,
too, passed outside the center of the "Old City," which was the focal point for the bombing attacks. No railway
stations were on the British target maps, nor, apparently, were bridges, the destruction of which could have impeded German
communications with the Eastern Front. And despite the claims of U.S. Air Force historians, writing in 1978, that "The
Secretary of War had to be appraised of ... the Russian request for its neutralization," the author has unearthed no
evidence of such a Soviet request.
What the author has discovered about the attack is that:
- By the end of Summer, 1944, "there is evidence that the
Western Allies were contemplating some terrible but swift end to the war by committing an atrocity which would terrify the
enemy into instant surrender. Without doubt, the inner truth has still to be prised loose, but the thread of thought can
- "The bomber commanders were not
really interested in any purely military or economic targets .... What they were looking for was a big built-up area which
they could burn .... The attraction Dresden had for Bomber Command was that the centre of the city should burn easily and
magnificentlv: as indeed it was to do."
- At the time
of the attacks on February 13-14, 1945, the inhabitants of Dresden were mostly women and children, many of whom had just
arrived as refugees from the East. There were also large numbers of Allied POWs. Few German males of military age were left
in the city environs. The author cites the official Bomber Command history prepared by Sir Charles Webster and Dr. Noble
Frankland, which reveals that "the unfortunate, frozen, starving civilian refugees were the first object of the attack,
before military movements "
- Dresden was virtually
undefended. Luftwaffe fighters stationed in the general vicinity were grounded for lack of fuel. With the exception of a
few light guns, the anti-aircraft batteries had been dismantled for employment elsewhere. McKee quotes one British participant
in the raid, who reported that "our biggest problem, quite truly, was with the chance of being hit by bombs from other
Lancasters flying above us."
- Targets of genuine
military significance were not hit, and had not even been included on the official list of targets. Among the neglected
military targets was the railway bridge spanning the Elbe River, the destruction of which could have halted rail traffic
for months. The railway marshalling yards in Dresden were also outside the RAF target area. The important autobahn bridge
to the west of the city was not attacked. Rubble from damaged buildings did interrupt the flow of traffic within the city,
"but in terms of the Eastern Front communications network, road transport was virtually unimpaired."
- In the course of the USAF daylight raids, American fighter- bombers strafed
civilians: "Amongst these people who had lost everything in a single night, panic broke out. Women and children were
massacred with cannon and bombs. It was mass murder." American aircraft even attacked animals in the Dresden Zoo. The
USAF was still at it in late April, with Mustangs strafing Allied POWs they discovered working in fields.
- The author concludes that, "Dresden had been bombed for political and
not military reasons; but again, without effect. There was misery, but it did not affect the war." Some have suggested
that the bombing of Dresden was meant to serve as a warning to Stalin of what sort of destruction the Western Powers were
capable of dealing. If that was their intent, it certainly failed to accomplish the objective.
Once word leaked out that the Dresden raids were generally viewed
as terrorist attacks against civilians, those most responsible for ordering the bombings tried to avoid their just share
of the blame. McKee points out that:
"In both the UK and the U.S.A. a high level of sophistication was to be employed in order
to excuse or justify the raids, or to blame them on someone else. It is difficult to think of any other atrocity -- and
there were many in the Second World War -- which has produced such an extraordinary aftermath of unscrupulous and mendacious
Who were the men to blame for the attacks? The author reveals that:
"It was the Prime Minister himself who in effect had signed the
death warrant for Dresden, which had been executed by Harris [chief of RAF Bomber Command]. And it was Churchill, too, who
in the beginning had enthusiastically backed the bomber marshals in carrying out the indiscriminate area bombing policy
in which they all believed. They were all in it together. Portal himself [head of the RAF, Harris of course, Trenchard [British
air theorist] too, and the Prime Minister most of all. And many lesser people."
An aspect of the Dresden bombing that remains
a question today is how many people died during the attacks of February 13-14, 1945. The city was crammed with uncounted
refugees and many POWs in transit. when the raids took place. The exact number of casualties will never be known. McKee
believed that the official figures were understated, and that 35,000 to 45,000 died, though "the figure of 35,000 for
one night's massacre alone might easily be doubled to 70,000 without much fear of exaggeration, I feel."
has written a compelling account of the destruction of Dresden. Although the author served with the British armed forces
during the war, his attitude toward the events he describes reminds this reviewer of McKee's fellow Brit, Royal Navy Captain
Russell Grenfell, who played a key role in the sinking of the battleship Bismarck, but who, after the war, wrote a classic
of modern revisionism, Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (1953). Likewise, Dresden
1945, deserves a place in any revisionist's library.
From The Journal
of Historical Review, Summer 1985 (Vol. 6, No. 2), pages 247-250.
The ‘Dehousing Paper’
The Real Extermination
Policy – How to Murder 25 Million Germans and get away with it
The British R.A.F. policy to murder at least a third of Germany’s civilian population and “Break
their spirit” – manifested from the ‘Dehousing Paper’
On 30 March 1942, Professor Frederick Lindemann – Baron Cherwell, the British government’s Chief Scientific Adviser (appointed by Churchill), who wielded more influence
than any other civilian adviser and was said to have “an almost pathological hatred for Germany, and an almost medieval
desire for revenge” as part of his character – sent to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, a memorandum, which after it had been accepted by the Cabinet, became known as the ‘Dehousing Paper.’
The paper was delivered during a debate within the British government about the most effective use of the nation’s
resources in waging war on Germany. Should the Royal Air Force (RAF) be reduced to allow more resources to go to the British Army and Royal Navy, or should the strategic bombing option be expanded to civilian targets?
The paper argued that the demolition of people’s houses (containing mostly
women and children, as men were absent on military duties) was the most effective way to affect the German morale, even more
effectively than killing their relatives.
Given the known limits of the
RAF in locating targets in Germany at the time and providing that the planned resources were made available to the RAF in
the near future, destroying about thirty percent of the “Housing Stock” of Germany’s fifty-eight
largest towns was considered the most effective use of the aircraft of RAF Bomber Command, because it would “Break the spirit of the Germans.”
After a heated debate by the government’s military and scientific Advisers, the Cabinet voted for the “Expanded”
strategic bombing campaign, over the other options available to them… in complete violation and defiance of all International Humanitarian Laws, the Hague Conventions, Laws of War and the Geneva Conventions – essentially, voted to approve of committing War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity.
November 1941 the RAF had been husbanding its resources and awaiting the introduction of large numbers of four-engined “heavy”
bombers and the GEE radio-navigational device into front-line service.
Bombing policy had, in actuality,
already moved away from attempts at precision bombing.
The paper was produced by Cherwell and the information was given by the researchers
in response to questions posed by Cherwell.
“The following seems a simple method of estimating what we could do by bombing
We know from our experience that we can count on nearly fourteen
operational sorties per bomber produced. The average lift of the bombers we are going to produce over the next fifteen months
will be about 3 tons. It follows that each of these bombers will in its life-time drop about 40 tons of bombs. If these are
dropped on built-up areas they will make 4000–8000 people homeless.
In 1938 over 22
million Germans lived in fifty-eight towns of over 100,000 inhabitants, which, with modern equipment, should be easy to
find and hit. Our forecast output of heavy bombers (including Wellingtons) between now and the middle of 1943 is about 10,000.
If even half the total load of 10,000 bombers were dropped on the built-up areas of these fifty-eight German towns, the great
majority of their inhabitants (about one-third of the German population) would be turned out of house and home… [that
is political linguistics for saying, mass murder, terrorism or genocide]
seems to show that having one’s home demolished is most damaging to morale. People seem to mind it more than having
their friends or even relatives killed. At Hull signs of strain were evident, though only one-tenth of the houses were demolished.
On the above figures we should be able to do ten times as much harm to each of the fifty-eight principal German towns. There
seems little doubt that this would break the spirit of the people.
assumes, of course, that we really get one-half of our bombs into built-up areas. On the other hand, no account is taken
of the large promised American production (6,000 heavy bombers in the period in question). Nor has regard been paid to the
inevitable damage to factories, communications, etc, in these towns and the damage by fire, probably accentuated by breakdown
of public services.”
Stated in British Parliament 1943
Lindemann believed that a small circle of the intelligent and
the aristocratic should run the world, resulting in a peaceable and stable society, “led by supermen and served
by helots.” Many sources say he was Jewish, others do not, but for an immigrant born in Germany and the son of
a wealthy banker, to hold such hated toward Germans, one can only surmise. Sometimes considered to be anti-democratic, insensitive
and elitist, Lindemann was in complete support and promotion of eugenics, he held the working class, homosexuals, Germans and blacks in contempt and, supported sterilisation of who he saw
as mentally incompetent. Referring to Lindemann’s lecture on Eugenics, Mukerjee concluded science could yield a race
of humans blessed with “the mental make-up of the worker bee”….At the lower end of the race and
class spectrum, one could remove the ability to suffer or to feel ambition….Instead of subscribing to what he called
“the fetish of equality,” Lindemann recommended that human differences should be accepted and indeed
enhanced by means of science. It was no longer necessary, he wrote, to wait for “the haphazard process of natural
selection to ensure that the slow and heavy mind gravitates to the lowest form of activity.”
Pictures: Lindemann’s “Housing Stock” turned
“Out of House and Home”
(frm Greek) Holos Kaustos – ‘Whole Burnt’
A Real ‘Holocaust Survivor’
documents confirm the horror of this policy and that Winston Churchill finds this kind of wanton destruction and terror
“Impressive” – see here
“The destruction of German cities, the killing of German
workers, and the disruption of civilized community life throughout Germany is the goal… It should be emphasized that
the destruction of houses, public utilities, transport and lives; the creation of a refugee problem on an unprecedented
scale; and the breakdown of morale both at home and at the battle fronts by fear of extended and intensified bombing are
accepted and intended aims of our bombing policy. They are not by-products of attempts to hit factories.”
Air Marshal Arthur Harris (aka ‘Bomber Harris’), Bomber Commander, British
R.A.F., October 25, 1943 – Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare, Tammi Biddle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
2002), p. 220.
“Will there be room [for the German refugees, fleeing before the Red army] in what is left of Germany?
We have killed six or seven million Germans and probably there will be another million or so killed before the end of the
– Winston Churchill, as noted by James F.
Byrnes‘ at the Plenary Session at Yalta, February 7, 1945 – 5 days before the Dresden Holocaust – (H.
S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri)
“The Prime Minister said that we hoped to shatter twenty German cities as we had
shattered Cologne, Lubeck, Dusseldorf, and so on. More and more aeroplanes and bigger and bigger bombs. Marshal Stalin had
heard of 2-ton bombs. We had now begun to use 4-ton bombs, and this would be continued throughout the winter. If need be,
as the war went on, we hoped to shatter almost every dwelling in almost every German city.”
– Official transcript of the meeting at the Kremlin between Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin on Wednesday,
August 12, 1942, at 7 P.M.
“The destruction of factories, which was nevertheless on an enormous scale, could be regarded as a bonus.
The aiming-points were usually right in the center of the town.”
– Arthur Harris, Bomber Offensive (London: HarperCollins, 1947), p. 147.
War Criminals who, in complete contravention of every International Convention and Treaty they were signatory to; intentionally planned, voted for and physically conducted one of, if not the biggest Crimes Against Humanity ever committed… then exhalted themselves into a position of Prosecution against the defeated at the Nuremberg
Show Trials, while proclaiming themselves exempt from the so-called law which they administered – in the biggest spectacle
of ‘Conflict of Interest‘ the world has ever been subjected to!
Therefore, legally speaking, all findings of the Nuremberg Show Trials should be revoked and a new trial convened, in
order to bring light to; the true crimes and partied criminals – who have never been brought to accountability –
public acknowledgement of the true victims, posthumous exoneration for those convicted at the Show Trials and in the very
least… an apology!
“We should never allow ourselves to apologize
for what we did to Germany.” – Winston Churchill to John Lawrence, quoted in Max Hastings, Bomber Command
(NY: Dial Press, 1979), p. 107.
Watch ‘Hellstorm’ – the documentary film exposing the
Genocide of WWII Germany
“The millions of Jews living in
America, England, France, North Africa and South, not forgetting Palestine, have decided to carry on the war in Germany
to the very end. It is to be a war of extermination.” ~ ‘The Jewish newspaper, ‘Central
Blad Voor Israeliten’ in Nederlands (13 September 1939)
In a BBC interview, allied witness and British POW, Victor Gregg, confirms
the genocidal Western policy as “Pure Evil” – 70 years after he survived the unnecessary Holocaust
of Dresden in February, 1945… at wars end, when German defeat was clearly evident and All-lied victory was already
in sight – none of these people were a threat to anybody.
Victor Gregg speaks
of the RAF Bomber Pilots who were just “Doing their job” and “Following orders” –
they are not to be blamed?
should not be judged by double standards!
Click on this text to hear/watch Lady Michelle Renouf speaking in Dresden - February 17th, 2018
13 February 1945: Approximately 500,000 German Refugees Burned Alive by Allied Forces in
The professional liars who act on behalf of the official
historiography of the Federal Republic of Germany shamelessly reduce the death toll of the Dresden holocaust by several
hundreds of thousands.
On the other hand, nobody disputes that
more than 12.000 houses in the center of the city were reduced to dust during the hellish firestorm. In view of the fact
that, in addition to the 600.000 inhabitants of Dresden, another 600.000 people (refugees from Breslau) had found shelter
in the overcrowded city, one can safely assume that each of these 12.000 houses contained no fewer than 50 people.
But of these houses virtually nothing remained, and the people who had been dwelling
in them were transformed into ashes due to a heat of 1600 degrees Celsius. The deniers of the German Holocaust brazenly
claim that only 35.000 persons perished in Dresden. Considering that a superficies of 7 x 4 kilometers, to wit 28 square
kilometers, was completely destroyed, this "politically correct” figure would imply that less than 1, 5 persons
died on each thousand square meters! In February 2005 a commission of "serious” historians further reduced this
figure, claiming that only 24.000 Germans had been killed in Dresden. But anybody familiar with the character of the political
system of Germany knows that these "serious historians” are nothing but vulgar falsifiers of history who are paid
for preventing the breakthrough of the truth with more and more bare-faced lies.
The figure of 35.000 dead only represents the small part of the victims who could be
fully identified. Erhard Mundra, a member of the "Bautzen committee” (an association of former political prisoners
in the GDR), wrote in the daily newspaper Die Welt (12.2. 1995, page 8): "According to the former general staff officer
of the military district of Dresden and retired lieutenant colonel of the Bundeswehr, D. Matthes, 35.000 victims were fully
and another 50.000 partly identified, whereas further 168.000 could not be identified at all.” It goes without saying
that the hapless children, women and old people whom the firestorm had transformed into a heap of ashes could not be identified
In 1955 former West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer
stated: "On 13 February 1945, the attack on the city of Dresden, which was overcrowded with refugees, claimed about
250.000 victims.” (Deutschland heute, edited by the press and information service of the federal government, Wiesbaden
1955, page 154.)
In 1992, the city of Dresden gave the following
answer to a citizen who had inquired about the death toll: "According to reliable information from the Dresden police,
202.040 dead, most of them women and children, were found until 20 March. Only about 30% of them could be identified. If
we take into account those who are missing, a figure of 250.000 to 300.000 victims seems realistic.” (letter by Hitzscherlich,
Sign: 0016/Mi, date: 31 - 7 - 1992.)
At the time of the attack,
Dresden had no anti-aircraft guns and no military defense. It possessed no military industry at all. The city served as
a shelter for refugees from the East. The roofs were marked with a red cross.
The German cities became huge crematoria.
In that horrible
night from 13 to 14 February 1945, the biggest war criminal of all time, Winston Churchill, had almost 700.000 incendiary
bombs dropped on Dresden – in other words, one bomb for two inhabitants. On 3 March 1995, Die Welt commented this
fact: "When the cities became crematoria… Professor Dietmar Hosser from the institute for construction material,
massive construction and fire prevention deems it highly probable that the temperatures above ground reached up to 1600 degrees
Celsius.”The deadly "liberation” came from the skies
genocide of the German nation destroyed "80% of all German cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants”. The air
forces of the Allied war criminals dropped "40.000 tons of bombs in 1942, 120.000 tons in 1943, 650.000 tons in 1944
and another 500.000 tons in the four last months of the war in 1945” (Die Welt, 11 February 1995, page G1).
The Germans did not begin the bombing war!
It should be reminded that Great Britain and France declared war on the German Reich on 3 September 1939,
and that England began the terror bombing against the German civilian population as early as two days after its declaration
of war. On 5 September 1939 the first raids took place against Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven; on 12 January 1940, Westerland/Sylt
was bombed. Two weeks later, on 25 January, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht forbade air raids against Britain, including
her ports, an exception being made for the docks of Rosyth. On 20 March, Kiel and Hörnum/Sylt were attacked with 110
explosive and incendiary bombs, which hit and destroyed a hospital. In April 1940, British bombers attacked further towns
devoid of military importance. On 11 May 1940, one day after being named Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, Winston
Churchill decided to order a massive air offensive against the German civilian population; however he did not inform his
own people of his decision. On 18 May 1940, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht reported more meaningless British attacks
on non-military aims and warned Britain of the consequences.
before 14/15 November 1940 did the Luftwaffe first attack a British city – Coventry with its important military industry.
This happened several months after the start of the British terror bombing against civilian targets in Germany. The raid
claimed about 600 victims.
Air-warfare expert Sönke Neitzel
concludes: "Indisputably during the first years of the war all heavy attacks of the German Luftwaffe against cities
were planned as military blows and cannot be defined as terror raids.” (Darmstädter Echo, 25 – 9 –
2004, p. 4)
Historians: "The British and American peoples
share the burden of guilt for the genocide of the Germans”
September 1988, military historians from five countries met at a conference in Freiburg. The event had been organized by
the Institute for Military Research of the Bundeswehr. During a week, American, British, German, French and Italian specialist
discussed various aspects of air warfare in the Second World War. After the conference, the daily newspaper Frankfurter
Allgemeine published a detailed and highly interesting article. Under the headline "Bombing the Cities”, the
author, Professor Günter Gillessen, wrote: "It is a remarkable fact that the Wehrmacht stuck to the traditional
principles of moderate warfare until the very end, whereas the two Western democracies resorted to a revolutionary, radical
and reckless type of air warfare.” Another interesting conclusion the historians arrived at was the following: "It
cannot be disputed that the principles of international law forbade total carpeting bombing … The historians considered
the indiscriminate bombing as an abomination, but refused to lay the whole guilt on Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris or the
Bomber Command. According to them, the entire staff of the RAF, but even more the political leaders, especially Churchill
and Roosevelt, plus the majority of their peoples shared the burden of guilt.”
Churchill wanted to roast German refugees.
13 February 1990, forty-five years after the destruction of Dresden, British historian David Irving spoke at the Dresden
"Kulturpalast". In his speech, Irving quoted the war criminal Winston Churchill: "I don't want any suggestions
how to destroy militarily important targets around Dresden. I want suggestions how blasting the Germans in their retreat
from Breslau." (Minute by A.P.S. of S. - Air Chief Marshal Sir Wilfrid Freeman- Jan 26, 1945 in "Air Historical
Branch file CMS.608") But for Churchill, roasting the Germans was not enough. On the morning after the firebombing,
he ordered his "Tiefflieger" (strafers, low-flying planes) to machine-gun the survivors on the beaches of the river
Elbe.Churchill’s systematic war of extermination against the German people included plans for the destruction of every
house in every German city. "’If it has to be, we hope to be able to destroy nearly every house in every German
city.’… In March 1945 Churchill began to doubt the wisdom of bombing German cities ‘simply for the sake
of increasing the terror’, but the terror continued.” (Die Welt, 11 February 2005, p. 27)
The German elite accuses the victims...
the butcher Churchill actually felt some belated remorse for his war of extermination against the civilian population of
Germany, the despicable German post-war elite awarded him the Karlspreis (Charlemagne prize) of Aachen. Churchill accepted
this prize in Aachen, one of the countless cities his air-force had devastated, thereby burning alive countless human beings.
Since then, the elite of the German vassal state has not changed. They continue
to praise the murderers and to revile the victims. On the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of the destruction of his city,
the mayor of Dresden, Ingolf Rossberg, did not shrink from heaping abuse on the German holocaust victims; he practically
justified the murder of hundreds of thousands (most of them women, children and wounded soldiers in the hospitals) plus the
annihilation of irreplaceable cultural treasures: "60 years after the devastating bombing, which claimed tens of thousands
of victims, mayor Ingolf Rossberg warned against misunderstanding Dresden as an ‘innocent city’.” (Die
Welt, 12 February 2005, Internet version).
Thus spoke the mayor
of a city which had received streams of people, animals and carriages like a caring mother. The streets and squares of Dresden
were filled with refugees, the meadows and parks had been transformed into huge camps. When the fatal hour approached, about
1.130.000 people were living in Dresden. The result of the attacks was even more murderous than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima
Only the German victims are guilty, not their murderers!
As American, British, German, French and Italian historians ascertained at the
Freiburg conference in 1988, not only the main war criminals Churchill and Roosevelt bear the guilt for history’s worst
atrocity. The majority of the British and the American population were not blameless either.
The German weekly Der Spiegel stated in its 1/1995 issue: "About six million Germans were killed."
As a matter of fact, the actual figure was about fifteen million. But although even the anti-German Spiegel admits that
six million Germans were put to death, the German elite only bemoans Jewish victims.
On 12 February 1995, Ernst Cramer wrote in Die Welt (page 12): "When commemorating the victims,
we should stop asking about guilt.” And what had the politically super-correct former German president, Roman Herzog,
to say about who was guilty of the German genocide? Speaking in Dresden on 13 February 1995, Herzog chose to insult the
victims by stating: "It is meaningless to discuss if the bombing war, the inhumanity of which nobody disputes, was
legally justified or not. What are such discussions good for, considering that fifty years have elapsed?” (Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung, 14 February 1995, p. 1)
But when it comes
to monstrously exaggerating the Auschwitz death toll (according to the well-known journalist Fritjof Meyer, three and a
half million Auschwitz victims were simply invented in order to denigrate the German people) the professional hypocrites
and liars never say: "It is meaningless to discuss this… What are such discussions good for, considering that
so and so many years have elapsed?” As a matter of fact, all leading German politicians claim that Germany is guilty
in all eternity. Even the unborn Germans are guilty!
Let us resume: Not even the responsibles deny that the German cities were transformed
into crematoria during World War Two. The total amounts of bombs dropped on the German cities has been confirmed by the
criminals themselves and is therefore credible. That six million Germans were killed, was confirmed by the anti-German Spiegel
and by official statistics, although the real figure is about 15 million. Nevertheless every liar under the sun apparently
has the right to affirm that the allied terror bombings claimed only a handful of victims. These brazen falsifiers of history
have nothing to fear from the German justice.
The biggest mass
murder in history...
The "democrats”, who claim to
have "liberated” the German people from Hitler, brought nothing but terror and destruction. In Dresden, they
murdered several hundreds of thousands people in one single hellish night and destroyed countless cultural treasures. Women
who were giving birth to children in the delivery rooms of the burning hospitals jumped out of the windows, but within minutes,
these mothers and their children, who were still hanging at the umbilical cords, were reduced to ashes too. Thousands of
people whom the incendiary bombs had transformed into living torches jumped into the ponds, but phosphorus continues to
burn even in the water. Even the animals from the zoo, elephants, lions and others, desperately headed for the water, together
with the humans. But all of them, the new-born child, the mother, the old man, the wounded soldier and the innocent animal
from the zoo and the stable, horribly perished in the name of "liberation".
The death toll of Dresden has been subject to raging controversy from the
day after the bombing. Vonnegut is probably on the money. The most likely figure is 100,000 despite the efforts of both sides
to minimise it since the tenacious David Irving discovered a British decode that supports the evidence of German schoolteacher,
BOMBING CIVILIANS (World War II)
Allied War Crimes
cities and civilians was actually started by Britain, Germany then retaliated. One of Churchill's (and Lindemann) war crimes (700,000 Phosphorus bombs were dropped on Dresden, deliberately killing over 500,000---During this time there were more than 1,2
Million people in Dresden, 600,000 Dresden citizens, plus 600,000 refugees from Breslau). This fits the
definition of holocaust: 'Holocaust -- from the meaning wholly burnt. 1) a sacrifice wholly consumed by fire.
2) complete consumption by fire'. Oxford English Dictionary. Another war crime is the
Mass Starvation of Germans, 1945-1950. With the use of phosphorous, the majority
of the German men, women, and children indiscriminately killed in the air war perished from the inhalation of poisonous
carbon monoxide gas, hence the gas proof bomb shelters (see below), that
they managed to pass off as 'gas chambers' for the Holocaust hoax.]
Saturday 7th September 1940 - was the first day of the Blitz. The first RAF raid on the interior
of Germany took place on the night of 15/16 May 1940. By the end of May 1941, over 43,000 civilians,
half of them in London, had been killed by bombing. About 50,000 British civilians compared to 1.5 million Germans?
Allied War Crimes
Dresden, before and after
[2015 Feb] Our Unprecedented WWII Atrocities Prior to the atomic attack on Japan, the US waged a firebombing war, not on the Japanese military, or its industries,
but on innocent Japanese men, women, and children, beginning with the dropping of 700,000 incendiary bombs on Tokyo. Two
nights later, a force of more than five hundred B-29s again struck the heart of the Japanese Empire with 4,000 tons of incendiaries.
Those Tokyo firebombs brought more horror than our minds can comprehend, but the resulting winds wrought even more terror.
The heat from the flaming cauldrons below was so intense that the B-29s flying above were often buffeted upwards by as much
as 4,000 feet. US reconnaissance photographs showed that 51.3 square miles of what was once Tokyo, teeming with seven
million human beings, had been reduced to ashes, with the lingering stench of burnt human flesh. It was then that US General
Curtis LeMay, who had been so successful in firebombing millions of innocent German citizens, smothered Yokohama with 3,200
tons of firebombs.
Allied Use of Delay-Action Bombs (aka Long-Term Chemical Detonator Bombs) and their Effects Contrary to the claims of the “Court Historians”, the Allied Terror-Bombing Campaign was not intended for the
destruction military targets, as my previous post demonstrate, but rather, to “de-house” and to kill as many
German civilians as possible….. Many of the bombs which were dropped upon German cities contained a perfidious mechanism
which, rather than exploding immediately upon contact with the ground or with buildings, were designed to explode hours
or days later, thereby causing harm to survivors when they had emerged from their bomb shelters and cellars. They also caused
serious danger to the Fire Fighters and Rescue personnel, sometimes killing them or making their duties virtually impossible
to carry out. Both the British and Americans had these types of ordinances in their arsenals and also and frequently deployed
them. Yes, this is how the so-called “good guys” and “liberators” waged war.
Churchill’s Policy of Deliberately Bombing German Civilians – A British War Crime Video: Excerpts from a presentation by historian David Irving from the late 1980s / early 90s in Germany in which
he explains how it was the British who started the aerial bombing and the targeting of civilians, and how it was Churchill,
from the beginning, who made it British policy, knowing full well that it was a war crime. The intent was to eventually force
Hitler to retaliate in kind. Hitler, himself, had always opposed the targeting of civilian populations, even long before
the war. Moreover, this was a deliberate policy of subverting Hitler’s attempts to make peace by instigating hatred
of the Germans in England. Irving provides some details of Hitler’s peace initiatives and terms. It is well documented
that Hitler and had always sought friendship with England. It was the British war mongers in Parliament, however, who long
before 1939 had been instigating for war. Statistics are also provided here which demonstrate how little damage was actually
done to German industry and military production as compared to the monstrous destruction of German cities and towns, resulting
in heavy civilian casualties.
Who Started the Bombing of Cities and Targeting of Civilians in World War II? Regarding England, the fact is, that Germany endured a solid 5 months of bombing of its cities and civilians before
responding in kind. The city of Coventry endured a mere 380 dead. While regrettable, that was absolutely minuscule in comparison
to the bombing of hundreds of German cities and towns, and the casualties which the German side endured by this unprovoked,
criminal British policy of targeting civilians.
 The Allied Holocaust At Dresden By Don Harkins
 Dresden Holocaust: Slaughter Of 500,000 German Civilians
How Britain Pioneered City Bombing by Nicholas Kollerstrom, PhD The Blitz on London in 1940 came in response to the initiation of city bombing by Britain some months earlier. Few now
accept this rudimentary fact, central to Britain’s role in initiating World War II ‘The exclusion of non-combatants
from the scope of hostilities is the fundamental distinction between civilised and barbarous warfare.’
 TERROR BOMBING: THE CRIME OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael Walsh
Defending Against the Allied Bombing Campaign: Air Raid Shelters and Gas Protection in Germany, 1939-1945, by Samuel Crowell
 Air Raid on Dresden Killed More Than 300,000
See: Churchill Professor Frederick Lindemann Eisenhower Mass Starvation of Germans, 1945-1950 Holocaust Agent Orange Napalm Phosphorus Depleted Uranium Red Army rape
[2014 Book, Film] Hellstorm: The Death of Nazi Germany, 1944-1947 by Thomas Goodrich
 Apocalypse 1945: the Destruction of Dresden by David Irving
The Fire: The Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945 by Jörg Friedrich. Combining meticulous research with striking descriptions, Jörg Friedrich
renders in acute detail the Allies' air campaign of systematic destruction of civilian life, cultural treasures, and industrial
capacities in Germany's city landscape. He includes personal stories and firsthand testimony of German civilians, creating
a portrait of unimaginable suffering, horror, and grief. He also draws on official military documents to unravel the reasoning
behind the Allies' strikes.
The Devastation of Hamburg, 1943 By Keith Lowe. Reviews
 The Night Hamburg Died by Martin Caidin.
 Advance to Barbarism by F.J.P Veale
Bombs over Dresden by Franz Kurowski
visit to Dresden provides proof positive that Germans, staggering under a monumental weight of white guilt, lead the way
in the suicide of the west.
On a recent visit to Germany I was quickly disabused of my notion that atonement for the sins
of the fathers would be perhaps subject to some kind of statute of limitations. Surely, generations after the cataclysm
of the Second World War, Germans would be entitled to feel at least some diminution of the guilt attached to their country’s
supposed single-handed initiation of a world war (no, make that total blame for two world wars) and the alleged
attempted genocide of a charmingly innocent racial/religious group.
But no, this peculiar brand of evil appears to have leached into the
very DNA of the Germans. It is as though babies born in Germany of White mothers arrive with indelibly blood-stained
hands. Like children born into religions, they are born into guilt. Ironically, the efforts of Hitler and the entire
apparatus of the Third Reich in tirelessly identifying who were Germans and who were not has made it ridiculously easy to
determine who to pin the everlasting blame on — those who are unable to identify as anyone other than a German. Non-German
citizens of Germany need not be concerned.
What has led me to so unshakable a conviction? In a word, Dresden — more specifically,
the murder of Dresden over two apocalyptic days in February 1945. This is a subject which has fascinated and appalled me
since long ago reading The Destruction of Dresden by David Irving. It is this book from which most of the facts
and figures relating to the atrocity given here come, as well as from Thomas Goodrich’s Hellstorm: The Death of Nazi Germany, 1944–1947. One cannot read these two books without being forced to conclude that the holocaust that consumed Dresden was a war
crime reaching a level of evil on a par with those committed against Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Tokyo. But guilt in these atrocities
has never been expressed, let alone admitted, nor will ever be admitted. Platitudes and rationalizations are offered instead.
Minutes after arriving in the, a garrulous receptionist informs me of a not-to-be-missed tourist
attraction. It’s an exhibition purported to be a memorial to the city’s destruction over seventy years ago. My
interest is immediately piqued. I naively presume, if one couldn’t possibly hope that guilt is actually eradicated,
at least a finger — even the tiniest pinky — of blame, may be pointing in the right direction.
I hire a bicycle and pedal out to where the receptionist
has directed me. The exhibition, truly on a giant scale, is housed within perfectly suited accommodation. It is a converted
gas storage unit, located unsurprisingly on Gasanstaltstrasse. If the type of hulking water reservoirs that sit astride
hilltops can be imagined, this provides a good facsimile of the housing of the Panometer. It is thirty meters high. On
entering the gloom and resounding funereal music of the exhibition, one is struck by the cathedral-like inner space. In the
center is a winding steel staircase leading to three platforms spaced evenly apart. Each platform naturally provides a different
perspective of what makes the exhibition so phenomenal — a gigantic, seamless 360-degree photographic montage of Dresden
not long after the attack. One becomes effectively wrapped around in a scene of total devastation. This in fact would have
been the perspective of the photographer snapping the originals from what obviously must have been an exceedingly precarious
vantage point. He evidently rotated while photographing to achieve the circular panorama that leads one into the illusion
of being at his side while he worked. Adding to this eerie, surreality is the alternately dimming and brightening lighting
as well as flashes of light and synchronized musical percussion to approximate exploding bombs. This is a uniquely moving
However, I was expecting more: some kind of homage — or at least even a mention — of the multitude who
met such horrible deaths. But no, not even a mention even of the absurdly low official estimate of 25,000.
But that’s not to say there were no victims.
As I explored further, I found them — small photographic portraits with accompanying accounts of tormented lives.
Of course! Like everything else about the war, especially in Germany, it was all about the Jews. The sad faces frozen by
photography were all Jewish faces — the true victims of the Dresden atrocity. That they weren’t there
at the time is a fact not allowed to spoil a good story. They had been removed prior to the attack and who knows how many
may have popped up again in Israel in the following years, quite unlike the Dresdeners whose numbers would have overflowed
a major sports stadium. They would not be popping up again anywhere. But ‘Oy vey, how we’ve suffered!’.
tale of woe remarkably avoids any mention of the tens of thousands of Germans incinerated, atomized, crushed like bugs or
simply driven insane on the 13th and 14th of February 1945 when the war was all but lost and largely
only continuing because of the demand for unconditional surrender. This had been adroitly exploited by Goebbels to convey
the not unfounded impression that Germany would be erased either way. The infamous Morganthau Plan, the implementation of
which would have resulted in millions of German deaths and Kaufman’s book Germany Must Perish advocating genocide
through sterilization did nothing to allay those fears. So, better to die on your feet.
In line with the assertion that the Jews had been the true victims of Dresden, comes the astonishing opinion
that ‘the destruction of the cultural metropolis of Dresden had long since begun with the assumption of power of the
National Socialists.’ It is an accepted fact that history is written by the winners, but it beggars belief that the
losers could be acquiescing so enthusiastically.
The methodology of the attack on Dresden had been honed to perfection by Arthur “Bomber”
Harris, Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command, who’d been charged by Churchill with the total destruction of German
cities and its concomitant maximum death toll. It was a given that this could be achieved by targeting densely populated
working-class areas. The bonus here was the concomitant disruption of war production because of dead or homeless workers.
Inexhaustibly energetic, he’d gone about his task with the dedication and efficiency of an evil genius. For example,
he had typically amoral scientists working out formulas showing deaths to be caused per ton of explosive. Before Dresden,
the destruction of Hamburg in 1944 was a triumph that needed to be studied. More people were killed in one night than the
number of deaths caused during the entire London blitz. An evidently intended and even foreseen consequence of the Hamburg
attack was the firestorm. This was a hurricane of flame engendered by a myriad of incendiaries causing winds violent enough
to roll locomotives. They rushed into the vacuum left by a volcanic up-draft of super-heated air. The city was effectively
converted into a blast furnace. This must have come to the perpetrators as the type of surprise one might experience on
discovering an extra present under a Christmas tree. All the while, the fiction was being maintained that the infernal destruction
of Germany was merely the surgical elimination of military/strategic targets.
Through more than four years of the most savage war
ever fought, Dresden had led something of a charmed life. Barely damaged by the violence swirling about them, Dresdeners
had slipped into a comfortable sense of false security. After all, apart from an east-west rail-line along which soldiers
were transported, the city was devoid of military value. In their naïveté, the inhabitants also reasoned that
a kind of tacit agreement had been established whereby if the cultural equivalent of Oxford was left alone, the architectural
treasure-house of the Dresden Altstadt, the old city, that had earned the city the reputation of being the ‘Florence
of the North’, would be spared. It was after all a cultural heirloom, not just to Germany, but to the civilized world.
It was inconceivable that it would be specifically targeted, and by racial kinsmen. But that is exactly what it was.
Since it was considered
a safe haven, it was packed with those fleeing the primitive barbarity of the Red Army. The Dresden population of 650,000
had become swollen by another 400,000 refugees, wounded soldiers and POWs.
How could they possibly have suspected they were about to become
pawns in a game played with the devil? They would be destroyed not because of a military rationale that may have shortened
the war by even an hour, but simply for political reasons. Because of Stalin’s quite accurate assertion that the Soviet
Union was bearing the brunt of the European war and his complaint that his allies weren’t doing enough to help (notwithstanding
the torrential flow of arms and equipment from the US), it was decided that some of the wind needed to be taken out of his
sails. What better, more impressive way to do it than to remove an entire city from his path. (Somewhat ironically however,
when knowledge of the atrocity had incensed people world-wide, Stalin was adamant that he’d never asked for this.
Likewise, Churchill was beginning to try to distance himself from the obscenity, leaving Harris out to dry, as the saying
efficiently and as scientifically as ever, Bomber Harris, in conjunction with US Army Air Force, prepared for his latest
assignment. The attack would comprise a triple blow, the first two at night, and closely spaced — the better to catch
rescuers and fire brigades out in the open with the second — and a daylight attack the following day by US Flying
Fortresses capable of carrying even greater bombloads than the British Lancasters. It would be a stroll in the park.
Luftwaffe pilots were fighting desperately elsewhere, or they were kept on
an airfield nearby because destroyed communications meant permission for take-off could not be obtained from Flight HQ. And
with the feared 88 mm flak cannon removed elsewhere because it was considered unneeded at Dresden, the city was as defenseless
as a man without limbs. The three swarms of attackers would comprise a staggering numbers of bombers, a strategy that had
become the norm. The amount of explosives dropped on Dresden would total almost 35 thousand tons. Bombs as various as clubs
in a golf-bag would be used, including the two- and four-ton ‘blockbusters’, so named because they could take
out entire city blocks, time-bombs to catch the unwary after the bombers had turned homewards, and deep-burrowing bombs
to find those hard to reach spots where victims would have been trembling uncontrollably underground. Of primary importance
though were the thousands of incendiaries that would be used to deliberately replicate the firestorm of Hamburg. The phosphorous
of the incendiaries, had a way of sticking to people, turning them into human torches.
And so it began. With sirens blaring and the
city’s inhabitants descending into makeshift, cellar shelters that would prove to be eventual death traps, what had
become known the length and breadth of Germany as ‘Christmas tree lights’ began falling from the sky. These
were the magnesium marker flares dropped by a squadron of Pathfinder Lancasters. Then the hellish incendiaries began
falling. With fires lighting up the city, it was then a simple matter to follow up with earth-quaking explosions.
A short time later a bomber crew member reported what he estimated to be ‘forty square miles of fire’. Another
wondered what it must have been like for “the poor sods below.”
Down below, the most fearful artistic imaginings of hell did not come
close to what was actually happening. The lucky ones were being asphyxiated because of oxygen being consumed by fire or
the buildup of carbon monoxide in basement shelters. The not so lucky caught out in the open were being picked up like rag
dolls and flung into the flames by cyclonic winds or having clothes, then skin, then flesh burnt from them as they ran before
dropping. Others became bogged in melted bitumen where their bodies would be later found face down and have to be pried
away from the once again solidified blackness. Many women still clutching babies or infants would be found like this. The
melting point of glass is around 1,600 degrees centigrade. Shattered
window panes began to melt. Sandstone melted and ran like lava.
The main railway station had become a city within a city with refugees,
wounded soldiers and POWs constantly arriving by train and being crowded also with people having nowhere else to go. Because
of its large underground area forming a de facto shelter — no proper public air-raid shelters existed in the city
— it acted as a magnet for the panic stricken as soon as the first bombs began falling. It proved however to be of
little protection against the many direct hits that peppered it. The first to die of course were those still huddled in
crowded train carriages, and then death tried more determinedly to find those so desperately trying to escape it. From
this location alone, many thousands of bodies were recovered in the following days. As across the entire city, many more
would never be found. However, the rail line running through the station, arguably a genuine military target, would be repaired,
allowing trains to be running again within days.
As bombers of the second wave finally headed for home, fire reaching high into
the atmosphere could still be seen 100 miles behind. The more sensitive of the bomber crewmen were beginning to feel shame
that would stay with them the rest of their lives.
But for the Dresdeners who had escaped the inferno
and were now shivering in the frigid cold, it wasn’t over yet. The new day brought a new attack. It was now time for
the US force — of similar magnitude to the preceding British waves — to launch its daring daylight attack, daring
that is, if those who could see it coming could have done anything about it. But they could only watch. The still roiling
clouds of smoke did however a degree of difficulty. But no need to be too finicky about where the bombs landed; they would
more than likely be only smashing rubble anyway. For mopping up, P51s streaked down low from the sky to strafe burnt and
bleeding survivors huddled in the parks and on the banks of the Elbe with cannon and machine gun fire. One American pilot,
possibly annoyed with a low score swept over what remained of the zoo. Most of the animals had been killed or had escaped
but a lone giraffe remained wandering and dazed. A burst of machine gun fire from the Mustang riddled the giraffe
and dropped it to the ground. Such was the heroism displayed on that day.
Irving gives the figure of 135,000 for the dead left lying in and
under the smoking rubble of Dresden. To do this, he simply followed his modus operandi of researching primary sources. In
this case, it was the record compiled by Hans Voigt, a teacher unemployed because Dresden schools had been recently converted
into military hospitals. By order of the Vermissten-Nachweis-Zentrale (Central Bureau of Missing Persons) he was
tasked with setting up and organizing an Arbteilung Tote (Dead Persons Department). This would ultimately be the
most enormous enterprise of its kind in history. With typical Teutonic efficiency he assembled a crew of seventy. This was
backed up by a further 300 from the VNZ. The system worked out was a kind of complex double entry ledger whereby bodies
were head counted by one team and tagged by another, the two totals then being cross-checked.
The first major accomplishment was the identification
of around 40,000 bodies via identifying documents and valuables. But that was where the total of identified bodies
remained. From there on, the teams were often counting three feet long, charcoal human effigies. All the while the
counters were interrupted by the bereaved wanting to take either identified bodies or bodies thought to be relatives in order
save them from the mass graves. They were forbidden to do so. Time was not on the side of the counters. Working in a miasma
of reeking death, the outbreak of disease was becoming an increasingly dangerous probability. When it became too great,
burial was abandoned, and as soon as bodies were counted, they were stacked on grills of iron girders and set on fire in
the streets. A scene in the film Slaughterhouse-Five, based on the book by Kurt Vonnegut who was one of the many
POWs assisting in rescue operations, shows a POW being shot for picking up from the rubble a Dresden doll. Summary execution
was in fact the fate of anyone even suspected of looting.
Where no actual bodies could be identified, such as when a cellar
was opened and what had been the people cowering inside had become layers of fine ash, educated guessing and inductive reasoning
was the only recourse. A similar problem attached to a scene described by Voigt and related by Irving: “The
bottom steps were slippery. The cellar floor was covered by an eleven- or twelve-inch deep liquid mixture of blood, flesh,
and bone; a small high explosive bomb had penetrated four floors of the building and exploded in the basement.” The
number of bodies contributing to the nightmarish mixture was easily ascertainable, however; it was discovered that at every
previous air raid alert, although not followed by an air raid, the cellar usually contained around 300 people.
Not a word of all
this however is contained within the Panometer. I exit the building so distracted I hardly notice the chemtrails painted
across a cloudless sky. Back at my hotel, I obtained a city map and began to take note of the suggestions of places of interest
crowded in its fringes. Curiously, the Panometer isn’t included, but in a small section entitled “5 min of history”
I notice this: “13th February 1945 — the Old Town was almost completely destroyed
[almost?. The city had been cored like an apple with ten square miles totally destroyed] and thousands of people died [at
least here is an acknowledgement that people actually died] … However, we should also not forget that many Dresdeners
… participated willingly in the Nazi regime. [italics mine].” I go over this part again to check that
I haven’t misread it. But no, that’s what it says. So those tens of thousands of souls that were destroyed so
terribly were simply getting what they deserved. They had been infected with National Socialism so it was only right that
they were burnt out like a cancer. But these are the writer’s own people he’s speaking of — ancestors,
who in many cultures are worthy of respect and reverence, even worship. How can they be disowned so simply, so brutally?
On further reflection, the answer — one of desperate but futile psychological processing — crystallizes. If the
bloodline can be severed, so can the blood guilt. If that doesn’t work, which it doesn’t, there’s
a fallback, and that is a common German sentiment expressed as “we’re proud of not being proud.”
This lack of pride
is truly astounding. While all over Germany little brass plaques set into foot-paths outside the homes once inhabited by
Jews reminds Germans of their guilt (the most common word in the details of their fate being ‘emordet’ [murdered]
and a lavish Holocaust museum stands accusingly in the center of their capital city), not one stone exists in memoriam of
the millions of Germans who perished — and in the case of Dresden and every other city that was carpet-bombed, emordet
— in the Second World War and for several years afterwards. (For the full horror, Goodrich’s Hellstorm
is required reading.) Because of suppressed knowledge, it’s unlikely that the millions of German POWs, robbed of that
status, and perishing in Eisenhower’s death camps are even mentioned. While the landscapes of the victors are dotted
with war memorials you will find no such tribute to the vast number of German men, and in the end, boys, who fought with
superhuman bravery and gave their lives for their people and nation. It doesn’t matter that, in the end, ragged and
starving, they fought to the last bullet simply for each other and to protect their people fleeing an unimaginably bestial
horde being urged on by Comrade Ehrenburg: “break the racial pride of these German women” and “kill, kill,
kill!” There is however a war memorial in the Harz Mountains town of Bad Harzburg. It commemorates the soldiers who
fought and died in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870–71. This is the last war about which Germans have a right to express
sad irony is that however much Germans try to dissociate themselves from their ancestors, it is all to no avail. Even the
cartoon renditions of a blood-dripping Adolph Hitler with which the German left likes to amuse themselves will not save
them. This is evidenced by the ongoing need to atone, most graphically illustrated by Frau Merkel’s launching of
the refugee crisis and the deadly virus of Islam. To certain others, German guilt is far too valuable to ever let expire.
Germans will forever remain “Hitler’s willing executioners.” The miracle is that, through some kind of
mental alchemy, what should have been venomous, undying hatred because of what was done to them, has been turned into everlasting
APOCALYPSE AT DRESDEN
by R. H. S. Crossman (Esquire Magazine - November 1963)
The long suppressed story of the worst massacre in the history of the world.
If the British Commonwealth and the United States last a thousand years, men may say that this was their darkest
Were all the crimes against humanity committed during World War II the work of Hitler's
underlings? That was certainly the impression created by the fact that only Germans were brought to trial at Nüremburg.
Alas! It is a false impression. We all now know that in the terrible struggle waged between the Red Army and the German
Wehrmacht, the Russians displayed their fair share of insensate inhumanity. What is less widely recognized -- because the
truth, until only recently, has been deliberately suppressed -- is that the Western democracies were responsible for the
most senseless single act of mass murder committed in the whole course of World War II.
devastation of Dresden in February, 1945, was one of those crimes against humanity whose authors would have been arraigned
at Nüremburg if that Court had not been perverted into the instrument of Allied justice. Whether measured in terms of
material destruction or by loss of human life, this "conventional" air raid was far more devastating than either
of the two atomic raids against Japan that were to follow it a few months later. Out of 28,410 houses in the inner city
of Dresden, 24,866 were destroyed; and the area of total destruction extended over eleven square miles.
As for the death roll, the population, as we shall see, had been well nigh doubled by a last-minute influx of refugees
flying before the Red Army; and even the German authorities -- usually so pedantic in their estimates -- gave up trying
to work out the precise total after some 35,000 bodies had been recognized, labeled and buried. We do know, however, that
the 1,250,000 people in the city on the night of the raid had been reduced to 368,619 by the time it was over; and it seems
certain that the death roll must have greatly exceeded the 71,879 at Hiroshima. Indeed, the German authorities were probably
correct who, a few days after the attack, put the total somewhere between 120,000 and 150,000.
was this horror permitted to happen? Was it a deliberate and considered act of policy, or was it the result of one of those
ghastly misunderstandings or miscalculations that sometimes occur in the heat of battle? There are many who will say that
these are academic questions belonging to history. I do not agree. Of course, what happened at Dresden belongs to the prenuclear
epoch. But it has a terrible relevance to the defense strategy which the Western democracies are operating today. If the
crime of Dresden is not to be repeated on a vaster scale, we must find out why it was committed. That, at least, has been
my feeling, and there are two special reasons which have prompted me to go on investigating the facts for so many years.
In the first place, I was myself involved in a quite minor capacity in the decisions which preceded it. When the Germans
overran France in 1940 and the Chamberlain Government in London was replaced by the Churchill Government, there was a purge
in Whitehall. Unexpectedly I found myself recruited to a secret department attached to the Foreign Office, with the title
"Director of Psychological Warfare against Germany." My main task was to plan the overt and subvert propaganda
which we hoped would rouse occupied Europe against Hitler. But I soon found myself caught up in a bitter top-secret controversy
about the role of bomber offensive in the breaking of German morale.
The Prime Minister
was haunted by fears that the bloodletting of the Somme and Passchendaele in World War I would have to be repeated if we
tried to defeat Hitler by landing and liberating Europe. So the Air Marshals found it easy to persuade him that if they
were given a free hand they could make these casualties unnecessary by smashing the German home front into submission. What
Hitler wreaked against London and Coventry, our bombers would repay a thousandfold, until the inhabitants of Berlin, Hamburg
and every other city in Germany had been systematically "de-housed" and pulverized into surrender. To achieve
this, the Air Marshals demanded that top priority in war production should be given not to preparations for the second front,
but to the construction of huge numbers of four-engined night bombers.
Eagerly Sir Winston
Churchill accepted their advice, with the backing of his whole Cabinet. The only warning voices raised were those of a number
of very influential scientists who, by means of careful calculations, threw serious doubt on the physical possibility of
wreaking the degree of destruction required. Their mathematical arguments were reinforced by the studies we psychological
warriors had made of British morale in the blitz. Assuming, wisely as it worked out, that the German people would behave
under air attack at least as bravely as the British people, we demonstrated that the scale of frightfulness our bombers could
employ against German cities would almost certainly strengthen civilian morale, and go stimulate the war production that
it was intended to weaken.
Early in 1941, these arguments were finally swept aside, and
Britain was completely committed to the bomber offensive. By the time it reached its first climax in the raid on Hamburg,
however, I had been transferred to Eisenhower's staff. I was happy, first in North Africa and then in SHAEF, to work with
an Anglo-American staff who did not trouble to conceal how much they detested the hysterical mania for destruction and the
cold-blooded delight in pounding the German home front to pieces displayed by the big-bomb boys. Indeed, one of my pleasantest
memories is the attitude General Walter Bedell Smith displayed a few weeks after the Dresden raid. Sir Winston had accused
"Ike" of being soft to the German civilians and ordered him to use terror tactics in order to panic them out of
their homes and onto the roads, and so to block the German retreat. No one contradicted Sir Winston, but as soon as his back
was turned, we were instructed to work out a directive that would prevent him getting his way.
V.E. Day, when I flew back to Britain in order to stand as a Labour Candidate in Coventry, I assumed with relief that my
concern with bombing was over. But I was wrong. Within years, Coventry -- the main victim of the Luftwaffe -- had
"twinned" itself with Dresden, the main victim of the R.A.F. And when Germany was divided and it became difficult
for Westerners to go behind the Iron Curtain, I had a standing invitation to visit Dresden as the guest of its Lord Mayor.
I have done so frequently, and on each occasion I have tried to match the inside experience of bombing strategy I acquired
during the war with firsthand information from its victims "on the other side of the hill." I have also checked
the published accounts of the destruction of Dresden available in Western and Eastern Germany, against the official History
of the Strategic Bombing Offensive published only two years ago in Britain. These researches have left me in no doubt whatever
how Dresden was destroyed, why it was destroyed, and what lessons we must draw from its destruction.
The prelude to the bombing of Dresden was sounded by the Russian communique of January 12, 1945, which announced
that the Red Army had resumed its offensive all along the front, and was advancing into Prussia and Silesia. This news could
hardly have been more embarrassing, either to General Dwight D. Eisenhower whose armies were still recovering from the humiliating
effects of General Karl von Rundstedt's Christmas offensive in the Ardennes, or to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime
Minister Churchill who were now preparing for the Yalta Conference due to start on February 4. Since the post war settlement
was bound to be discussed with Josef Stalin in terms not of principle but of pure politics, Sir Winston felt that the impression
created by the Red Army's occupation of Eastern Europe and advance deep into Germany must somehow be countered. But how?
The obvious answer was by a demonstration right up against the Red Army of Western air power. What was required, he decided,
was a thunderclap of Anglo-American aerial annihilation so frightful in the destruction it wreaked that even Stalin would
January 25 was the day when the decision was taken that resulted in the blotting
out of Dresden. Until then, the capital of Saxony had been considered so famous a cultural monument and so futile a military
target that even the Commander in Chief of Bombing Command, Air Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, had given it hardly a thought.
All its flak batteries had been removed for use on the Eastern front; and the Dresden authorities had taken none of the
precautions, either in the strengthening of air-raid shelters, or in the provision of concrete bunkers that had so startlingly
reduced casualties in other German cities subjected to Allied attack. Instead, they had encouraged rumors that it would be
spared either because Churchill had a niece living there, or else because it was reserved by the Allies as their main occupation
quarters. These rumors were strengthened by the knowledge that no less than some 26,000 Allied prisoners were quartered
in and around the city, and that its population had doubled to well over a million in recent weeks by streams of refugees
from the East.
All this Sir Winston knew on January 26. But early on that winter morning
he had learned that the Russian Army had crossed the Oder at Breslav and was now only sixty miles from Dresden. Angrily
he rang up Sir Archibald Sinclair, his Secretary of State for Air, and asked him what plans he had for "basting the
Germans -- in their retreat from Breslav." Sir Archibald, whose main function it had been to protect Bomber Command
from public criticism by a series of lying assurances that scrupulous care was taken to bomb only military targets, remained
true to type. He prevaricated over the phone and next day replied that in the view of the Air Staff "intervention in
winter weather at very long range over Eastern Germany would be difficult." To this the Premier replied with a memorandum
so offensive in its controlled fury that the Minister and the Air Staff, never noted for their moral courage, were stampeded
into action. At once, orders were given to concert with the American Eighth Air Force a plan for wiping out Leipzig, Chemnitz
Sir Winston and his staff left for Yalta, where it became only too clear that
the Premier's forebodings were justified. Strengthened by his victories, Stalin pressed his political demands upon a President
now weakened and very near his death, and a Prime Minister isolated and ill at ease. When suggestions were made that the
Western bombing should be used to help the Red Army advance, the Russian generals were chilly and unresponsive. Nevertheless,
Sir Arthur Harris had already selected Dresden, now only sixty miles from the front, for destruction. And day by day, Sir
Winston hoped that he would be able to impress Stalin with the demonstration of what Allied air power could achieve so near
the Russian allies. But the weather was against him. The conference broke up on the eleventh, and it was only three days
later -- long after the conference when it could no longer have any effect on the negotiations -- that the R.A.F.'s spokesman
in London proudly announced the destruction of Dresden.
We must now turn back and see what
the airmen had been planning. Sir Arthur Harris was quick to seize the opportunity presented by the Prime Minister's insistence
that Bomber Command must make its presence felt in Eastern Germany. Since 1941, by a slow process of trial and error which
had cost him many thousands of air crews, he had perfected his new technique of "saturation precision bombardment."
First, daylight operations over Germany had been discarded as too costly; then, with raiding confined to nighttime target
bombing, after a long period of quite imaginary successes, had been abandoned as too wildly inaccurate. The decision was
taken to set each city center on fire and destroy the residential areas, sector by sector.
this new kind of incendiary attack, highly trained special crews were sent ahead to delineate a clearly defined target area
with marker flares, nicknamed by the Germans "Christmas trees." When this had been done, all that remained for
the rest of the bomber forces was to lay its bomb carpet so thickly that the defense, the A.R.P., the police, and the fire
services would all be overwhelmed.
This fire-raising technique was first used with complete
success in the great raid on Hamburg. Thousands of individual fires conglomerated into a single blaze, creating the famous
"fire-storms" effect, first described by the Police President of the city in a secret report to Hitler that soon
fell into Allied hands:
"As the result of the confluence of a number of fires, the
air above is heated to such an extent that in consequence of its reduced specific gravity, a violent updraft occurs which
causes great suction of the surrounding air radiating from the center of the fire... The suction of the fire storm in the
larger of these area fire zones has the effect of attracting the already overheated air in smaller area fire zones... One
effect of this phenomenon was that the fire in the smaller area fire zones was fanned as by a bellows as the central suction
of the biggest and fiercest fires caused increased and accelerated attraction of the surrounding masses of fresh air. In
this way all the area fires became united in one vast fire."
The Hamburg fire storm
probably killed some 40,000 people: three-quarters by carbon-monoxide poisoning as a result of the oxygen being sucked out
of the air; the rest by asphyxiation.
As soon as he heard that permission had been given
to destroy Dresden, Air Marshal Harris decided to achieve this by a deliberately created fire storm, and to increase the
effect he persuaded the Americans to split the available bombers into three groups. The task of the first wave was to create
the fire storm. Three hours later, a second and much heavier night force of British bombers was timed to arrive when the
German fighter and flak defenses would be off guard, and the rescue squads on their way. Its task was to spread the fire
storm. Finally, the next morning, a daylight attack by the Eighth Air Force was to concentrate on the outlying areas, the
Two-pronged attacks had been successfully carried out during 1944 against a number
of German towns. The three-pronged attack employed at Dresden was unique and uniquely successful. The first wave, consisting
of some two hundred fifty night bombers, arrived precisely on time and duly created a fire storm. The second force -- more
than twice as strong and carrying an enormous load of incendiaries -- also reached the target punctually, and, undisturbed
by flak or night fighters, spent thirty-four minutes carefully spreading the fires outside the first target area. Finally,
to complete the devastation, some two hundred eleven Flying Fortresses began the third attack at 11:30 a.m. on the following
morning. Without exaggeration, the commanders could claim that the Dresden raid had "gone according to plan."
Everything which happened in the stricken city had been foreseen and planned with meticulous care.
So far, we have been looking at the Dresden raid from "our own side of the hill" -- considering the point
of view of Mr. Churchill, concerned to create the best impression possible on Stalin at the Yalta Conference, and of Air
Marshal Harris, eager to demonstrate the technique for creating a fire storm. But what was the impact on the Dresdeners?
Inevitably the raid has created its own folklore. Thousands of those who survived it now live in Western Germany, each with
his own memory to retail to the visitor. In Dresden itself, the city fathers have now established an official Communist
version, of which the main purpose clearly is to put the main blame on the "American imperialists" (we are solemnly
told, for instance, that the R.A.F. was directed to special targets in the city by an American capitalist whose villa on
the far side of the Elbe is now a luxury club for favored Communist artists). Nevertheless, anyone who bothers to read the
books published in both Germanies and to compare the stories he hears from Communist and anti-Communist witnesses soon discovers
that not only the outline of events but the details of the main episodes are agreed beyond dispute.
Dresden is one of those German cities which normally devotes Shrove Tuesday to Carnival festivities. But on February
13, 1945, with the Red Army sixty miles away, the mood was somber. The refugees, who were crowded into every house, each
had his horror story about Russian atrocities. In many parts of the city, and particularly around the railway station, thousands
of latecomers who could find no corner in which to sleep were camping in the bitter cold of the open streets. The only signs
of Carnival spirit, when the sirens sounded at 9:55 p.m., were the full house at the circus and a few gangs of little girls
wandering about in fancy dress. Though no one took the danger of a raid very seriously, orders must be obeyed and the population
just had time to get down to its shelters before the first bombs fell at nine minutes past the hour.
Twenty-four minutes later, the last British bomber was on its way back to England, and the inner city of Dresden
was ablaze. Since there were no steel structures in any of its apartment houses, the floors quickly capsized, and half an
hour after the raid was over the fire storm transformed thousands of individual blazes into a sea of flames, ripping off
the roofs, tossing trees, cars and lorries into the air, and simultaneously sucking the oxygen out of the air-raid shelters.
Most of those who remained below ground were to die painlessly, their bodies first brilliantly tinted
bright orange and blue, and then, as the heat grew intense, either totally incinerated or melted into a thick liquid sometimes
three or four feet deep. But there were others who, when the bombing stopped, rushed upstairs. Some of them stopped to collect
their belongings before escaping, and they were caught by the second raid. But some 10,000 fled to the great open space
of the Grosse Garten, the magnificent royal park of Dresden, nearly one and a half square miles in all.
Here they were caught by the second raid, which started without an air-raid warning, at 1:22 a.m. Far heavier than
the first -- there were twice as many bombers with a far heavier load of incendiaries -- its target markers had been deliberately
placed in order to spread the fires into the black rectangle which was all the airmen could see of the Grosse Garten. Within
minutes the fire storm was raging across the grass, ripping up some trees and littering the branches of others with clothes,
bicycles and dismembered limbs that remained hanging for days afterward.
was the carnage in the great square outside the main railway station. Here, the thousands camping out had been reinforced
by other thousands escaping from the inner city, while within the station a dozen trains, when the first sirens blew, had
been shunted to the marshaling yards and escaped all damage. After the first raid stopped, these trains were shunted back
to the station platforms -- just in time to receive the full force of the bombardment. For weeks, mangled bodies were littered
inside and outside the station building. Below ground, the scene was even more macabre. The restaurants, cellars and tunnels
could easily have been turned into effective bombproof shelters. The authorities had not bothered to do so, and of the two
thousand crowded in the dark, one hundred were burned alive and five hundred asphyxiated before the doors could be opened
and the survivors pulled out.
The timing of the second raid, just three hours after the
first, not only insured that the few night fighters in the area were off their guard, but it also created the chaos intended
and effectively interrupted all rescue work. For many miles around, military detachments, rescue squads and fire brigades
started on their way to the stricken city, and most of them were making their way through the suburbs when the bombs began
to fall. Those who turned back were soon swallowed up in the mad rush of panic evacuation. Most of those who proceeded toward
the center perished in the fire storm.
The most terrible scenes in the inner city took place
in the magnificent old market square, the Altmarkt. Soon after the first raid finished, this great square was jam-packed
with panting survivors. When the second raid struck, they could scarcely move until someone remembered the huge concrete
emergency water tank that had been constructed to one side. This tank was a hundred by fifty yards by six feet deep. There
was a sudden stampede to escape the heat of the fire storm by plunging into it. Those who did so forgot that its sloping
sides were slippery, with no handholds. The nonswimmers sank to the bottom, dragging the swimmers with them. When the rescuers
reached the Altmarkt five days later, they found the tank filled with bloated corpses, while the rest of the square was
littered with recumbent or seated figures so shrunk by the incineration that thirty of them could be taken away in a single
But perhaps the most memorable horror of this second raid occurred in the hospitals.
In the last year of the war, Dresden had become a hospital city, with many of its schools converted into temporary wards.
Of its nineteen hospitals, sixteen were badly damaged and three, including the main maternity clinic, totally destroyed.
Thousands of crippled survivors were dragged by their nurses to the banks of the River Elbe, where they were laid in rows
on the grass to wait for the daylight. But when it came, there was another horror. Punctually at 11:30 a.m., the third wave
of bombers, the two hundred eleven American Flying Fortresses, began their attack. Once again, the area of destruction was
extended across the city. But what the survivors all remember were the scores of Mustang fighters diving low over the bodies
huddled on the banks of the Elbe, as well as on the larger lawns of the Grosse Garten, in order to shoot them up. Other
Mustangs chose as their targets the serried crowds that blocked every road out of Dresden. No one knows how many women and
children were actually killed by those dive-bombing attacks. But in the legend of Dresden destruction, they have become
the symbol of Yankee sadism and brutality, and the inquirer is never permitted to forget that many choirboys of one of Dresden's
most famous churches were among the victims.
For five days and nights, the city burned and
no attempt was made to enter it. Then at last the authorities began to grapple with the crisis and to estimate the damage.
Of Dresden's five theatres, all had gone. Of her fifty-four churches, nine were totally destroyed and thirty-eight seriously
damaged. Of her one hundred thirty-nine schools, sixty-nine ceased to exist and fifty were badly hit. The great zoo which
lay just beyond the Grosse Garten had been struck in the second raid, and the panicked animals had mingled with the desperate
survivors. Now they were rounded up and shot. Those who escaped from the prisons, when they too were blown up, had better
fortune: they all managed to get away, including a number of brave anti-Nazis.
things had survived destruction. The few factories Dresden possessed were outside the city center, and soon were at work
again. So too was the railway system. Within three days, indeed, military trains were running once again right through the
city, and the marshaling yards -- untouched by a bomb -- were in full operation. It was as though an ironical fate had decided
that the first fire storm deliberately created by mortal man should destroy everything worth preserving, and leave untouched
anything of military value.
In their salvage work, the Nazis relied on some 25,000 Allied
prisoners of war, concentrated in and around the city. Dresden, as was known very well in London and Washington, was not
only a hospital city but a prisoner-of-war city -- still another reason why the authorities assumed it would not be attacked.
Faced with the appalling scenes of suffering, the prisoners seemed to have worked with a will, even after some of their
fellow-prisoners had been shot under martial law for looting.
What Dresdeners chiefly remember,
of these first days after the raid, is the disposal of the bodies. Throughout the war, German local authorities had been
extremely careful to show great respect for death, enabling relatives wherever possible to identify and to bury their own
dead. At first, this procedure was followed in Dresden. But weeks after the raid there were still thousands of unopened
cellars under the smoldering ruins, and the air was thick with the fog and sweet stench of rotting flesh. An S.S. commander
made the decision that the daily procession of horse-drawn biers from the city to the cemeteries outside must be stopped.
If plague was to be prevented, the rest of the corpses must be disposed of more speedily. Hurriedly, a monstrous funeral
pyre was constructed in the Altmarkt. Steel shutters from one of Dresden's biggest department stores were laid across broken
slabs of ironstone. On this macabre gridiron, the bodies were piled with straw between each layer, soaked with gasoline
and set ablaze. Nine thousand corpses were disposed of in this way, and eight cubic meters of ash were then loaded into
gasoline containers and buried in a graveyard outside the city, twenty-five feet wide and fifteen feet deep.
If it was expected in either London or Washington that the destruction of Dresden, despite its negligible
military significance, would at least shatter German morale, this hope was soon to be disappointed -- thanks to Paul Joseph
Goebbels' skillful exploitation of the disaster. For days, the Propaganda Ministry in Berlin poured out, both in its foreign
and in its home services, a stream of eyewitness accounts of the stricken city, backed up by moralistic attacks on the cold-blooded
sadism of the men who created the fire storm. In his secret propaganda, Dr. Goebbels did even better by leaking to the neutral
press a fictitious top-secret estimate that the casualties had probably reached 260,000. As a result of this Nazi propaganda
campaign, the German people were convinced that the Anglo-American forces were indeed bent on their destruction. And their
morale was once again stiffened by terror of defeat.
Disturbed by the success of Dr. Goebbels'
propaganda, the airmen decided to call a press conference on February 16 at SHAEF. As a result of the briefing, given by
a British Air Commodore, Associated Press cabled a special dispatch all over the world, announcing "the long-awaited
decision to adopt deliberate terror bombings of German population centers as a ruthless expedient of hastening Hitler's
doom." The correspondents added that the Dresden attack was "for the avowed purpose of heaping more confusion
on Nazi road and rail traffic, and to sap German morale."
When this dispatch reached
London, it was immediately censored on the ground that officially the R.A.F. only bombed military targets, and the attribution
to it of terror raids was a vicious piece of Nazi propaganda. In the United States, where the dispatch was widely publicized,
the embarrassment caused to the Administration was acute, since the Air Force spokesmen had seldom failed to point out the
difference between the indiscriminate R.A.F. night attacks and the selective and precise nature of the daylight bombing
carried out by the Eighth Air Force.
In order to stop awkward questions, General George
C. Marshall then gave a public assurance that the bombing on Dresden had taken place at Russian request. Although no evidence
was produced either then or since for the truth of this statement, it was accepted uncritically and has since found its
way into a number of official American histories.
But suppression was not sufficient to
stem the rising wave of public protest. Coming as it did when the war was virtually over, the wanton destruction of the Florence
of the North and the mass murder of so many of its inhabitants was too much, even for a world public opinion fed for years
on strident war propaganda. The publication of a lengthy report by a Swedish correspondent caused a revulsion of feeling.
Within a few weeks, this revulsion against indiscriminate bombing had affected even Sir Winston Churchill.
Up till now, the critics in the British Parliament of area bombing had been a small derided minority. Suddenly, their influence
began to grow, and on March 28, Sir Winston in response to this new mood, wrote to the Chief of the Air Staff, beginning
with the remarkable words:
"It seems to me that the moment has come when the question
of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed."
Since the Premier had taken the lead in demanding the switch from target to area bombing and had
actively encouraged each new advance proposed by Air Marshal Harris in the technique of air obliteration, this memorandum
could hardly have been less felicitously phrased. It provided damning evidence that so long as terror bombing was popular,
the politicians would take credit for it; but now that public opinion was revolting against its senseless brutality, they
were only too obviously running for cover and leaving the air force to take the blame.
outraged was the Chief of the Air Staff that on this occasion he stood up to Sir Winston, forcing him to withdraw the memorandum,
and to substitute for it what the official historians -- who narrate this incident in full -- have described as "a
somewhat more discreetly and fairly worded document."
But in Britain at least the damage
had already been done. From that moment, Bomber Command, which for years had been the object of adulation, became increasingly
discredited, and the nickname of its Commander in Chief changed from "Bomber" Harris to "Butcher" Harris.
Although the bomber crews, suffered far the heaviest casualties of any of the British armed services, no campaign medal
was struck to distinguish their part in winning the war. In his victory broadcast of May 13, 1945, Sir Winston omitted any
tribute to them, and after the Labour Government came to power, Earl Attlee was just as vindictive. In January, 1946, he
omitted their Commander in Chief from his victory honors list. Sir Arthur Harris accepted the insult loyally, and on February
13 sailed to exile in South Africa.
The Eighth Air Force was treated more gently, both
by the politicians in Washington and by the American public. Its airmen received their share of campaign medals, and to this
day it has never been officially admitted that by the end of the war they were bombing city centers and residential areas
as wantonly by day as the R.A.F. was by night. There was, however, an important difference between the public image of the
two Air Forces. The British Cabinet, having secretly decided to sanction indiscriminate terror bombing, concealed this decision
from the British public and therefore compelled Bomber Command to operate under cover of a sustained and deliberate lie.
In the case of the Eighth Air Force, self-deception took place of lying. Instead of doing one thing and saying another,
the myth was maintained that on every mission the Flying Fortresses aimed exclusively at military targets, and this is still
part of the official American legend of World War II. It was because it was impossible to square this legend with what had
happened at Dresden that General Marshall had to excuse American protestation in that holocaust on the fictitious ground
that the Russians had requested the attack.
I leave it to the reader to decide which form
was more nauseating -- British lying or American self-deception. For what concerns me in this inquiry is not the public
image of Anglo-American idealism that was shattered by the Dresden raid, but the crime against humanity which was perpetrated.
That it was decided to bomb a city of no military value simply in order to impress Stalin. That a fire storm was deliberately
created in order to kill as many people as possible, and that the survivors were machine-gunned as they lay helpless in
the open -- all this has been established without a shadow of a doubt. What remains is to ask how decent, civilized politicians
enthusiastically approved such mass murder and decent, civilized servicemen conscientiously carried it out.
The usual explanation -- or excuse -- is that strategic bombing was only adopted by the Western powers
as a method of retaliation in a total war started by totalitarians. This is at best a half-truth. The Nazis and the Communists
dabbled in terror raids on civilian targets. But they were old-fashioned and imperialist enough to hold that the aim of war
is not to destroy the enemy, but to defeat his armies in the field, to occupy his country, and exploit its resources. That
is why both Stalin and Hitler preferred to use their air power, not as a separate weapon of unlimited war, but as a tactical
adjunct to conventional land and sea operations. In fact, the only nations which applied the theory of unlimited war really
systematically were the two great Western democracies. Both created a gigantic strategic air force and carried out quite
separate but eventually unsuccessful attempts to defeat Germany by aerial annihilation.
at first sight, terror bombing seems to me, as an Englishman, a form of warfare repugnant to our national temperament, and
utterly unsuited to an island people, itself hopelessly vulnerable to indiscriminate air attack. And I suspect that most
Americans also feel that it does not conform with the traditions of the American way of life.
then did both nations adopt it?
I believe that the motive which prompted us was a very characteristic
Anglo-Saxon desire to defend ourselves without preparing for war to win the fruits of victory; without actual fighting,
and (if this proved impossible) at least to keep casualties down to a minimum among our own soldiers. Not only do British
and American fighting men demand a far higher standard of living than most of their enemies. Even more important, they insist
that they should not be required to risk death in close combat if remote-control methods of destroying the enemy are available.
That, I am sure, is the main reason why our politicians and generals felt morally justified in conducting a bomber offensive
against Germany which culminated in the destruction of Dresden.
Once we see this, we are
no longer surprised that, as soon as an atomic bomb had been perfected, President Truman decided, with the full approval
of the British Prime Minister, to use it. In this way, he could finish off the Japanese without a landing that would have
cost thousands of American lives!
The moral I draw from the terrible story of Dresden is
that the atom bombs employed on Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not inaugurate a new epoch in the history of war. They merely
provided a new method of achieving victory without the casualties involved in land fighting far more deadly and far more
economical than the thousand-bomber raid of World War II. Here, our politicians and generals felt, was the ultimate weapon
which would enable the democracies to disarm and to relax -- yet deter aggression.
Nearly twenty years of bitter experience have taught us that the world was not made safe for democracy either by the "conventional"
fire storm created by the bombers in Dresden, or by the atomic fire storm of Hiroshima. Even in modern war, crime does not
DRESDEN AND THE HOLOCAUST DENIERS
the firebombing of Dresden comes up you can be certain of two reactions. 1) They started it. 2) It was in response to Coventry.
If it wasn’t for a thoroughly corrupt media the facts would be better known.
ADMISSION OF BRITISH GUILT
“Because we were
doubtful about the psychological effect of propagandist distortion of the truth that it was we who started the strategic
bombing offensive, we have shrunk from giving our great decision of May 11, 1940, the publicity it deserves.” ~ Bombing
Vindicated. J. M. Spaight, CB. CBE. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry. (Note the date was during what journalists
described as the Bore War as the conflict was to all intents and purposes over; only Churchill was determined to widen the
“We began to bomb objectives on the German mainland before the Germans began
to bomb objectives on the British mainland.” ~ J. M. Spaight, CB. CBE. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry.
“The first ‘area’ air attack
of the war was carried out by 134 British bombers on the German city of Mannheim, on the 16 December 1940. The
object of this attack, as Air Chief Marshall Peirse later explained, was, “To concentrate the maximum amount of damage
in the centre of the town,” ~ The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany. (H. M Stationery Office, London, 1961).
VICTIM IS BLAMED
“Hitler only undertook the bombing of British civilian targets reluctantly three
months after the RAF had commenced bombing German civilian targets. Hitler would have been willing at any time
to stop the slaughter. Adolf Hitler was genuinely anxious to reach with Britain an agreement confining the action of
aircraft to battle zones.” ~ J. M Spaight, CB. CBE. Bombing Vindicated, p.47. Principal Secretary to the Air Ministry.
Captain Sir. Basil Liddell Hart, eminent British
war historian and strategist declared that through this strategy victory had been achieved “through practicing the
most uncivilised means of warfare that the world had known since the Mongol invasions.” ~ The Evolution of Warfare.
Baber & Faber, 1946, p.75.
BRITISH PRIME MINISTER APPALLED
It was absolutely contrary
to international law. ~ Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. The British Government would never resort to the deliberate attack
on women and children for the purposes of mere terrorism.” ~ Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain before
being ousted as Prime Minister.
ADOLF HITLER’S REVULSION
of bombing airplanes would soon be abandoned as superfluous and ineffective if bombing as such were branded as an illegal
barbarity. If through the Red Cross Convention, it definitely turned out possible to prevent the killing of a
defenseless wounded man or prisoner, then it ought to be equally possible, by analogous convention, and finally to stop the
bombing of equally defenseless civil populations.” ~ German Chancellor Adolf Hitler.
WAS A LEGITIMATE TARGET
This is an absurd lie: Dresden, an undefended city of no military importance was a
turkey-shoot for RAF Bomber Command. However, in action elsewhere, Butcher Harris’s airborne killers lost 88,000 crew:
“The third and last phase of the British
air offensive against Germany began in March 1942 with the adoption of the Lindemann Plan by the British War Cabinet, and
continued with undiminished ferocity until the end of the war in May 1945.
The bombing during this period was not, as the Germans complained, indiscriminate. On
the contrary; it was concentrated on working class houses because, as Professor Lindemann maintained, a higher percentage
of bloodshed per ton of explosives dropped could be expected from bombing houses built close together, rather than by bombing
higher class houses surrounded by gardens.” ~ Advance to Barbarism, F. J. P Veale, British Author and Jurist.
“I am in full agreement (of terror bombing). I
am all for the bombing of working-class areas in German cities. I am a Cromwellian, I believe in ‘slaying
in the name of the Lord!” ~ Sir. Archibald Sinclair, British RAF Secretary for Air (above)
EYE FOR AN EYE (COVENTRY)
The Luftwaffe bombing of the English city of Coventry is often cited when
the justification for the bombing campaign is sought. It has since been disclosed that the bombing of the city
was deliberately set up as ‘a means to an end’.
lost 100 acres through bombing during the entire period of the war. By contrast, “In those terrible ten days of mid-1943,
British bombers gutted more than six thousand acres of Hamburg.” ~ Martin Caidin.
Three hundred times as many people died in the German city of Hamburg
during the ten-day blitz as died in Coventry during the entire course of the war so was hardly comparative.
COLLUSION OF MEDIA
“It is one of the greatest triumphs of modern emotional engineering
that, in spite of the plain facts of the case which could never be disguised or even materially distorted, the British public,
throughout the Blitz Period (1940 – 1941), remained convinced that the entire responsibility for their sufferings
it was undergoing rested on the German leaders.
high praise cannot, therefore, be lavished on the British emotional engineers (media and palace publishers) for the infinite
skill with which the public mind was conditioned prior to and during a period of unparalleled strain.” ~ Advance to
Barbarism, P. 168. Mitre Press, London. F. J. P Veale, British Jurist.
WAS AN ISOLATED INCIDENT
During World War 2 more bombs by weight were dropped on the city of Berlin than were
released on the whole of Great Britain during the entire war. All German towns and cities above 50,000 populations
were from 50% to 80% destroyed.
The great city of Dresden
dubbed the Florence of Northern Europe was incinerated with up to 300,000 civilians burned and buried in the ruins. Hamburg
was destroyed and 70,000 civilians died in the most appalling circumstances whilst the ancient City of Cologne was turned
into a moonscape.
German and European
cities incinerated include Berlin, Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen, Dresden, Frankfurt, Nuremberg, Dusseldorf,
Hanover, Bremen, Wuppertal, Vienna, Duisburg. Munich, Magdeburg, Leipzig, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Kiel, Gelsdenkirchen,
Bochum, Aachen, Wurzburg, Darmstadt, Krefeld, Munster, Munchen Gladbach, Braunschweig, Ludwishafen, Remscheid, Pforzheim,
Osnabruck, Mainz, Bielefeld, Gieben, Duren, Solingen, Wilhelmshaven, Karlsruhe, Oberhausen, Heilbronn, Augsburg, Hamm, Knittelfeld,
Luneburg, Cuxhaven, Kulmback, Hagen, Saarbrucken, Freiburg, Graz, Koblenz, Ulm, Bonn, Bremerhaven, Wanne-Eickel, Worms,
Lubeck, Schweinfurt, Kleve, Wiener Neustadt, Wiesbaden, Paderborn, Bocholt, Hanau, Hildesheim, Emden, Siegen, Pirmasons,
Hale, Bayreuth, Kreuznach, Witten, Aschaffenburg, Kaiserlautern, Gladbeck, Dorsten, Innsbruck, Neumunster, Linz, Klagenfurt,
Reutlingen, Recklinghausen, Reuel, Regensburg, Homberg, Elmshorn, Wetzel, Villach, Hamelin, Konigsberg, Moers, Passau, Solbad
Hall I. T, Coburg, Attnang-Puchheim, Friedrichshafen, Frankfurt-Oder, Danzig, Bozen, Chemnitz, Rostock, Schwerte,
Plauen, Rome, Bad Kreuznach, Neapel, Genoa, Mailand, Turin.
WORSE THAN HIROSHIMA, NAGASAKI, AND TOKYO FIRESTORMS “The
fire and horror lasted ten full days. This is what makes Hamburg, and the loss of some seventy thousand men,
women and children stand out as the worst of the disasters visited upon civilization during the insanity of World War 2.”
~ Martin Caidin, prolific Writer, Scientist and Aeronautical Specialist.
IT IS RECOMMENDED that readers use this information to respond
to media comments that exonerate or launder, lie and confuse about this vexed subject.
13 February 1945: Approximately 500,000 German Refugees Burned Alive by Allied Forces in Dresden
The professional liars who act on behalf of the official historiography of the Federal
Republic of Germany shamelessly reduce the death toll of the Dresden holocaust by several hundreds of thousands.
On the other
hand, nobody disputes that more than 12.000 houses in the center of the city were reduced to dust during the hellish firestorm.
In view of the fact that, in addition to the 600.000 inhabitants of Dresden, another 600.000 people (refugees from Breslau)
had found shelter in the overcrowded city, one can safely assume that each of these 12.000 houses contained no fewer than
But of these houses virtually nothing remained, and the people who had been dwelling in them were transformed into
ashes due to a heat of 1600 degrees Celsius. The deniers of the German Holocaust brazenly claim that only 35.000 persons
perished in Dresden. Considering that a superficies of 7 x 4 kilometers, to wit 28 square kilometers, was completely destroyed,
this "politically correct” figure would imply that less than 1, 5 persons died on each thousand square meters!
In February 2005 a commission of "serious” historians further reduced this figure, claiming that only 24.000
Germans had been killed in Dresden. But anybody familiar with the character of the political system of Germany knows that
these "serious historians” are nothing but vulgar falsifiers of history who are paid for preventing the breakthrough
of the truth with more and more bare-faced lies.
The figure of 35.000 dead only represents the small part of the victims who
could be fully identified. Erhard Mundra, a member of the "Bautzen committee” (an association of former political
prisoners in the GDR), wrote in the daily newspaper Die Welt (12.2. 1995, page 8): "According to the former general
staff officer of the military district of Dresden and retired lieutenant colonel of the Bundeswehr, D. Matthes, 35.000 victims
were fully and another 50.000 partly identified, whereas further 168.000 could not be identified at all.” It goes without
saying that the hapless children, women and old people whom the firestorm had transformed into a heap of ashes could not
be identified either.
former West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer stated: "On 13 February 1945, the attack on the city of Dresden, which
was overcrowded with refugees, claimed about 250.000 victims.” (Deutschland heute, edited by the press and information
service of the federal government, Wiesbaden 1955, page 154.)
In 1992, the city of Dresden gave the following answer to a citizen
who had inquired about the death toll: "According to reliable information from the Dresden police, 202.040 dead, most
of them women and children, were found until 20 March. Only about 30% of them could be identified. If we take into account
those who are missing, a figure of 250.000 to 300.000 victims seems realistic.” (letter by Hitzscherlich, Sign: 0016/Mi,
date: 31 - 7 - 1992.)
At the time of the attack, Dresden
had no anti-aircraft guns and no military defense. It possessed no military industry at all. The city served as a shelter
for refugees from the East. The roofs were marked with a red cross.
The German cities became huge crematoria
In that horrible night from 13 to 14 February
1945, the biggest war criminal of all time, Winston Churchill, had almost 700.000 incendiary bombs dropped on Dresden –
in other words, one bomb for two inhabitants. On 3 March 1995, Die Welt commented this fact: "When the cities became
crematoria… Professor Dietmar Hosser from the institute for construction material, massive construction and fire
prevention deems it highly probable that the temperatures above ground reached up to 1600 degrees Celsius.”The deadly
"liberation” came from the skies
The genocide of the German nation destroyed "80% of all German cities with more than 100.000
inhabitants”. The air forces of the Allied war criminals dropped "40.000 tons of bombs in 1942, 120.000 tons in
1943, 650.000 tons in 1944 and another 500.000 tons in the four last months of the war in 1945” (Die Welt, 11 February
1995, page G1).
The Germans did not begin the bombing war!
It should be reminded that Great Britain and France declared war on the German
Reich on 3 September 1939, and that England began the terror bombing against the German civilian population as early as two
days after its declaration of war. On 5 September 1939 the first raids took place against Wilhelmshaven and Cuxhaven; on
12 January 1940, Westerland/Sylt was bombed. Two weeks later, on 25 January, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht forbade
air raids against Britain, including her ports, an exception being made for the docks of Rosyth. On 20 March, Kiel and Hörnum/Sylt
were attacked with 110 explosive and incendiary bombs, which hit and destroyed a hospital. In April 1940, British bombers
attacked further towns devoid of military importance. On 11 May 1940, one day after being named Prime Minister and Minister
of Defence, Winston Churchill decided to order a massive air offensive against the German civilian population; however he
did not inform his own people of his decision. On 18 May 1940, the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht reported more meaningless
British attacks on non-military aims and warned Britain of the consequences.
Not before 14/15 November 1940 did the Luftwaffe first attack a British
city – Coventry with its important military industry. This happened several months after the start of the British terror
bombing against civilian targets in Germany. The raid claimed about 600 victims.
Air-warfare expert Sönke Neitzel concludes:
"Indisputably during the first years of the war all heavy attacks of the German Luftwaffe against cities were planned
as military blows and cannot be defined as terror raids.” (Darmstädter Echo, 25 – 9 – 2004, p. 4)
British and American peoples share the burden of guilt for the genocide of the Germans”
In September 1988, military historians from five
countries met at a conference in Freiburg. The event had been organized by the Institute for Military Research of the Bundeswehr.
During a week, American, British, German, French and Italian specialist discussed various aspects of air warfare in the
Second World War. After the conference, the daily newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine published a detailed and highly interesting
article. Under the headline "Bombing the Cities”, the author, Professor Günter Gillessen, wrote: "It
is a remarkable fact that the Wehrmacht stuck to the traditional principles of moderate warfare until the very end, whereas
the two Western democracies resorted to a revolutionary, radical and reckless type of air warfare.” Another interesting
conclusion the historians arrived at was the following: "It cannot be disputed that the principles of international
law forbade total carpeting bombing … The historians considered the indiscriminate bombing as an abomination, but
refused to lay the whole guilt on Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris or the Bomber Command. According to them, the entire staff
of the RAF, but even more the political leaders, especially Churchill and Roosevelt, plus the majority of their peoples
shared the burden of guilt.”
Churchill wanted to roast German refugees
On 13 February 1990, forty-five years after the destruction of Dresden,
British historian David Irving spoke at the Dresden "Kulturpalast". In his speech, Irving quoted the war criminal
Winston Churchill: "I don't want any suggestions how to destroy militarily important targets around Dresden. I want
suggestions how blasting the Germans in their retreat from Breslau." (Minute by A.P.S. of S. - Air Chief Marshal Sir
Wilfrid Freeman- Jan 26, 1945 in "Air Historical Branch file CMS.608") But for Churchill, roasting the Germans
was not enough. On the morning after the firebombing, he ordered his "Tiefflieger" (strafers, low-flying planes)
to machine-gun the survivors on the beaches of the river Elbe.Churchill’s systematic war of extermination against
the German people included plans for the destruction of every house in every German city. "’If it has to be, we
hope to be able to destroy nearly every house in every German city.’… In March 1945 Churchill began to doubt
the wisdom of bombing German cities ‘simply for the sake of increasing the terror’, but the terror continued.”
(Die Welt, 11 February 2005, p. 27)
The German elite accuses the victims
Whereas the butcher Churchill actually felt some belated remorse for
his war of extermination against the civilian population of Germany, the despicable German post-war elite awarded him the
Karlspreis (Charlemagne prize) of Aachen. Churchill accepted this prize in Aachen, one of the countless cities his air-force
had devastated, thereby burning alive countless human beings.
Since then, the elite of the German vassal state has not changed.
They continue to praise the murderers and to revile the victims. On the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of the destruction
of his city, the mayor of Dresden, Ingolf Rossberg, did not shrink from heaping abuse on the German holocaust victims; he
practically justified the murder of hundreds of thousands (most of them women, children and wounded soldiers in the hospitals)
plus the annihilation of irreplaceable cultural treasures: "60 years after the devastating bombing, which claimed tens
of thousands of victims, mayor Ingolf Rossberg warned against misunderstanding Dresden as an ‘innocent city’.”
(Die Welt, 12 February 2005, Internet version).
Thus spoke the mayor of a city which had received streams of people, animals
and carriages like a caring mother. The streets and squares of Dresden were filled with refugees, the meadows and parks had
been transformed into huge camps. When the fatal hour approached, about 1.130.000 people were living in Dresden. The result
of the attacks was even more murderous than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Only the German victims are guilty, not their
As American, British, German, French and Italian historians ascertained at the Freiburg conference in 1988, not
only the main war criminals Churchill and Roosevelt bear the guilt for history’s worst atrocity. The majority of the
British and the American population were not blameless either.
The German weekly Der Spiegel stated in its 1/1995 issue: "About
six million Germans were killed." As a matter of fact, the actual figure was about fifteen million. But although even
the anti-German Spiegel admits that six million Germans were put to death, the German elite only bemoans Jewish victims.
On 12 February
1995, Ernst Cramer wrote in Die Welt (page 12): "When commemorating the victims, we should stop asking about guilt.”
And what had the politically super-correct former German president, Roman Herzog, to say about who was guilty of the German
genocide? Speaking in Dresden on 13 February 1995, Herzog chose to insult the victims by stating: "It is meaningless
to discuss if the bombing war, the inhumanity of which nobody disputes, was legally justified or not. What are such discussions
good for, considering that fifty years have elapsed?” (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 14 February 1995, p. 1)
But when it comes
to monstrously exaggerating the Auschwitz death toll (according to the well-known journalist Fritjof Meyer, three and a
half million Auschwitz victims were simply invented in order to denigrate the German people) the professional hypocrites
and liars never say: "It is meaningless to discuss this… What are such discussions good for, considering that
so and so many years have elapsed?” As a matter of fact, all leading German politicians claim that Germany is guilty
in all eternity. Even the unborn Germans are guilty!
Let us resume: Not even the responsibles deny that the German cities
were transformed into crematoria during World War Two. The total amounts of bombs dropped on the German cities has been
confirmed by the criminals themselves and is therefore credible. That six million Germans were killed, was confirmed by
the anti-German Spiegel and by official statistics, although the real figure is about 15 million. Nevertheless every liar
under the sun apparently has the right to affirm that the allied terror bombings claimed only a handful of victims. These
brazen falsifiers of history have nothing to fear from the German justice.
The biggest mass murder in history
The "democrats”, who claim to have
"liberated” the German people from Hitler, brought nothing but terror and destruction. In Dresden, they murdered
several hundreds of thousands people in one single hellish night and destroyed countless cultural treasures. Women who were
giving birth to children in the delivery rooms of the burning hospitals jumped out of the windows, but within minutes, these
mothers and their children, who were still hanging at the umbilical cords, were reduced to ashes too. Thousands of people
whom the incendiary bombs had transformed into living torches jumped into the ponds, but phosphorus continues to burn even
in the water. Even the animals from the zoo, elephants, lions and others, desperately headed for the water, together with
the humans. But all of them, the new-born child, the mother, the old man, the wounded soldier and the innocent animal from
the zoo and the stable, horribly perished in the name of "liberation".
Pforzheim: The Dresden Nobody Knows About
7:50 and 8:12 p.m. local time on February 23, 1945, RAF aircraft dropped 1575 tons of high explosive and incendiary bombs
on Pforzheim, setting off a firestorm that is widely seen as one of the most devastating in military history. According
to official statistics, 17,600 people died, and tens of thousands of others were injured. The market square and old town
area were destroyed and completely depopulated. In the entire city, over 80 percent of the architecture that existed in
1945 was defaced, making Pforzheim, proportionally speaking, the worst instance of destruction at the end of WWII. The
Allied bombardments of Dresden and Hamburg have been well documented and remain in the public consciousness today, both
in Germany and abroad. But Pforzheim doesn't.
The Bombing War in Europe 1939-1945: A Review
... One of Overy's major preoccupations is with the
morality of bombing civilians. At the start of the war, all sides agreed that the intentional bombing of civilians was
illegal and that bombing should be confined to military targets. But desperate straits on the Western Front in spring 1940
(rather than the German bombing of Rotterdam) led the British to abandon this policy in favour of bombing targets in Germany
for a military purpose even where civilians would undoubtedly be in the firing line. Both Winston Churchill and Clement
Attlee were strongly in favour of this approach. For Overy, one of the many myths of the Second World War was that the
Germans were the first to bomb civilians: in his view, the British got their retaliation in first.
As a prisoner of war held in Dresden,
I still suffer the memories of those terrible events and my anger refuses to subside.
wasn't new to murder and bloodletting. I had enlisted two years prior to the outbreak of the second world war and by the
time I was 21 I had taken part in one major battle and various smaller ones. I had been in fights where the ground in front
of me was littered with the remains of young men who had once been full of the joy of living, laughing and joking with their
mates. As each year of the war went by, the fighting got more ferocious, new weapons were introduced and fresh young men
became the targets. How I remained a sane person through all this I don't know.
Then came the evening of the 13 February, 1945 – 68 years ago this
week. I was a prisoner of war held in Dresden. At about 10.30pm that night, the air raid sirens started their mournful wailing
and because this happened every night no notice was taken. The people of Dresden believed that as long as the Luftwaffe
kept away from Oxford, Dresden would be spared. The sirens stopped and after a short period of silence the first wave of
pathfinders were over the city dropping their target flares.
As the incendiaries fell, the phosphorus clung to the bodies of those below, turning them into
human torches. The screaming of those who were being burned alive was added to the cries of those not yet hit. There was
no need for flares to lead the second wave of bombers to their target, as the whole city had become a gigantic torch. It
must have been visible to the pilots from a hundred miles away. Dresden had no defences, no anti-aircraft guns, no searchlights,
My account of this
tragedy, Dresden: A Survivor's Story, was published on the day of the anniversary this week. I gave a number of interviews
around the publication, in which I insisted that the affair was a war crime at the highest level, a stain upon the name Englishman
that only an apology made in full public view would suffice to obliterate.
Many – including some writing comments underneath articles on this site –
have criticised me for this. Reading through the criticisms I have to admit that some of the things I have written have caused
many people some hurt, but to these people I would say that as a person I still suffer at times the memories of those terrible
being regarded as some form of hero on the one hand, to a Nazi supporter on the other, has taught me that there are so many
sides to any question. I have learned to try to understand those who disagree with my outlook. Like Kurt Vonnegut in Slaughterhouse-Five,
I wrote as I witnessed. I have no axe to grind. I just sat down and tried to empty my mind and clear away the residues of
the nightmares that I still occasionally suffered from.
My justification for still harbouring these attitudes is the events in European history since the ending of the
second world war. The massacres in Bosnia at Srebrenica, the hurling of Tomahawk missiles by British naval cruisers into
the centre of an inhabited Benghazi, the manner in which as a nation we still tend to be sympathetic to the use of superior
aircraft strength to bomb overcrowded refugee centres. These are the reasons my anger has refused to subside.
Perhaps I should be more realistic and knuckle
down to the concept of the brutality of the human race, but I have always been a stubborn individual. I am not a diplomat.
I just happen to have witnessed the worst that man has to offer and I like it not one bit. Bearing in mind that I care deeply
about the future of all my children and grandchildren, please allow me to express my anger.